5.21 Reducing tobacco access and supply

Last updated: February 2018
Suggested citation: Greenhalgh, EM., Grace, C., Hagan, K., Scollo, M., Purcell, K. 5.21 Reducing tobacco access and supply. In Scollo, MM and Winstanley, MH [editors]. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; 2018. Available from: http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-5-uptake/5-21-reducing-tobacco-access-and-supply

Many tobacco control policies—such as high tobacco prices, advertising and promotion bans, and plain packaging—aim to reduce demand among smokers, however reducing supply may also be an important measure in reducing smoking rates. Reducing children’s access to tobacco, when part of a comprehensive suite of tobacco control policies, appears to reduce smoking among young people,1-3 although there is some debate in the literature as to the extent of its importance and effectiveness as a means of reducing uptake.4-9

5.21.1 How children access tobacco

In 2014, the most common ways for Australian adolescents to access cigarettes was through friends (50% of current smokers) and asking someone else to buy them (20% of current smokers).10 The proportion of 12–15 year old current smokers who reported getting others to buy cigarettes for them slightly decreased between the two most recent survey years (17% in 2008 and 15% in 2014). Conversely, among 16–17 year olds, the proportion increased (from 18% in 2008 to 23% in 2014).

In 2014, approximately 14% of current smokers aged 12–17 years reported having purchased their last cigarette themselves. The likelihood of having made a personal purchase increased with age, from about 8% of 12‒15 year olds, to about 18% of 16‒17 year olds. Male smokers were more likely to have bought their own cigarettes than female smokers.10 

The overall proportion of current smokers aged 12‒17 buying their own cigarettes has declined substantially over time. In 1987 more than half of students aged 12–17 years purchased their last cigarette, compared with 14% in 2014—see Figure 5.21.1 

 

 

Figure 5.21.1
Percentage of current smokers aged 12 to 15 and 16 to 17 buying cigarettes for themselves, 1987 to 2014 


Sources: 
 ASSAD surveys 1987 to 2014
 

The same survey showed that among current smokers aged 12‒17, 19% of males and 16% of female students thought it would be easy (or very easy) to buy their own cigarettes, and 45% believed it would be easy (or very easy) to get someone else to buy cigarettes for them.10 The proportion of children buying their cigarettes has varied across jurisdictions over time. For example, in New South Wales in 2008, fewer than 1 in 10 students (8.7%) aged 12–17 years purchased their last cigarette,11 compared with 22% in 2002.12 In South Australia, 15% of students aged 12–17 years purchased their last cigarette in 2008, compared with 19% in 2002.13

5.21.2 Legislation banning sales to minors 

Most countries around the world have long banned sales of tobacco products to children.  

5.21.2.1 Laws banning sales to minors – Australia 

It is illegal to sell tobacco products to children under the age of 18 years in all states and territories of Australia. Legislation to restrict retailers from selling cigarettes to children was among the earliest tobacco control policies to be introduced in Australia—refer Table 5.21.1, column 1. Modern versions of these legislative provisions are included in tobacco control legislation in every state—refer Column 2.

Table 5.21.1 
Summary of legislation banning sales of tobacco products to minors—Australian states and territories 

State/Territory

First legislation banning sales to minors

Date legislation first introduced

Date minimum age for tobacco sales raised to 18 years

Current legislation prohibiting sale of tobacco products to children under 18

NSW

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act of 1903, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.1  

30 November 1903

26 April 1991 - under section 59 of the Public Health Act 1991 (NSW). 2  

Public Health (Tobacco) Act 2008 (NSW), section 22.

Vic

Juvenile Smoking Prevention Act 1906, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 16 years.3  

11 September 1906

1 January 1994 - pursuant to section 4 of the Tobacco (Amendment) Act 1993 (Vic). 4  

Tobacco Act 1987 (Vic), section 12.

Qld

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act 1905, section 2 prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 16 years.5  

24 November 1905

1998 6 – pursuant to sections 10 and 11 of the Tobacco Products (Prevention of Supply to Children) Act 1998 (QLD).

Tobacco and Other Smoking Products Act 1998 (QLD) 7, sections 10 and 11.

WA

Sale of Liquor and Tobacco Act 1916, section 10 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 18 years.8  

2 March 1917

2 March 1917

Tobacco Products Control Act 2006 (WA), section 6.

SA

The Children’s Protection Amendment Act 1904, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any child actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.9  

24 November 1904

1997 10 – pursuant to section 38 of the Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997 11 (SA).

Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997 (SA), section 38A.

Tas

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act 1900, section 3 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 13 years. 12  

20 November 1900

1996 13 - pursuant to section 121C of the Public Health Act 1962 (Tas).

Public Health Act 1997 (TAS) 14, section 64.

NT

The Children’s Protection Amendment Act 1904 (SA), section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any child actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.15  

24 November 1904

24 November 1904

Tobacco Control Act (NT), section 42.

ACT

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act of 1903 (NSW), section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.16  

30 November 1903

1 January 1991 – pursuant to the Tobacco Act 1927.17

Tobacco and Other Smoking Products Act 1927, section 14.

 1 Available from: https://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/acts/1903-11.pdf 
 2 Available from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/repealed_act/pha1991126/
 3 Available from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/hist_act/jspa1906320/
 4Available from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/hist_act/ta1993153/
 5Available from: https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/REPEALED/J/JuvenileSmSuppA05_01_.pdf   
 6Precise date unknown.
 7Available from: https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/ACTS/1998/98AC001.pdf  
 8Available from: https://www.slp.wa.gov.au/pco/prod/filestore.nsf/FileURL/mrdoc_13481.pdf/$FILE/Sale%20of%20Tobacco%20Act%201916%20-%20%5B00-00- 00%5D.pdf?OpenElement  
 9Available from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/num_act/tcpaa875o1904385/
 10Precise date unknown.
 11Available from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/num_act/tpra26o1997339/
 12Available from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/tas/num_act/tjssa190064vn27440/  
 13Precise date unknown.
 14As amended by the Public Health Amendment Act 1996 (Tas), available from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/tas/num_act//phaa199649o1996252/phaa199649o1996252.pdf
 15From 1863 to 1911, the Northern Territory was annexed to South Australia. The Children’s Protection Amendment Act 1904 (SA) therefore also applied to the Northern Territory.
 16Up until 1911, the ACT formed part of New South Wales. The Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act of 1903 (NSW) applied to the ACT up until 23 June 1927, when it was replaced by the Tobacco Ordinance 1927 (ACT). Section 10 of the Tobacco Ordinance 1927 prohibited the sale of tobacco products to children under the age of 16 years. A copy of the ordinance is available at: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/num_ord/to1927126/


Most states and territories have introduced strict proof-of-age requirements for the sale of tobacco, requiring the seller to request and sight approved photo ID to determine the age of a person attempting to purchase tobacco. Acceptable forms of photo ID generally include driver’s licence, passport or an official ‘proof of age’ card. Some jurisdictions prosecute retailers caught selling tobacco, while others have introduced an expiation system for these offences. 

Efforts to more vigorously enforce laws banning the sale of tobacco to minors began in some states in the early 1990s—notably in Western Australia and New South Wales. These efforts focused on monitoring compliance with the legislation, retailer education, issuing warning notices and where necessary, prosecution of offenders. Compliance monitoring and enforcement efforts generally utilised ‘controlled purchase activities’ where children attempt to purchase tobacco under the supervision of an adult. 

Since 2011 the majority of states and territories—New South Wales, Western Australia, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory—have conducted random compliance monitoring activities as described above. Queensland employs covert surveillance operations both opportunistically, and in response to complaints to monitor and enforce the legislation. 

5.21.2.2 Future directions for minimum age laws in Australia

In light of a robust body of evidence showing that almost all smokers start smoking when they are teenagers,2 a number of Australian public health experts, politicians, philanthropists and health groups have proposed that the minimum purchasing age for tobacco should be raised.14-17

See Section 5.21.3 for an overview of evidence for this approach.

5.21.2.3 Future directions for minimum age laws in Australia 

The large majority of countries have implemented a minimum tobacco purchase age of 18.18  

In the US, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that tobacco retailers only sell tobacco products to customers aged 18 or older;19 however, in recent years there has been a growing movement to raise the minimum age of legal access to tobacco to 21. In late 2017, Oregon became the fifth state to prohibit the sale of tobacco products to people under 21, following California, Hawaii, New Jersey, and Maine, and more than 250 cities and counties.20 Such laws are supported by the majority of the public,21, 22 including by young people.23, 24 Interestingly, restricting the sale and use of tobacco to individuals21 years and over was common throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the US, but these laws were eroded over time to between 16 and 18 years, largely due to tobacco industry lobbying.25  

A number of other countries, including Honduras, Kuwait, Samoa, Sri Lanka, and Uganda have also implemented a minimum legal age of purchasing tobacco at 21.18 Among a range of possible future options, Health Canada has also proposed raising the minimum age of tobacco access, in order to protect youth.26  

 

5.21.3 Effectiveness of sales to minors laws in reducing uptake

Widespread availability and access to tobacco products can promote perceptions among young people that smoking is more socially acceptable, and less harmful, than is the case,27 and can in turn increases their likelihood of smoking.9, 28 In contrast to arguments that sales restrictions could make tobacco more appealing to young people (as ‘forbidden fruit’),29 research has shown continued declines in smoking prevalence among young people during a sustained period of enforcement of such legislation.11-13   

Overall, weak legislation and ineffective enforcement lead to poorer retailer compliance, and have minimal effect on youth smoking rates.7-9 Conversely, strong laws and enforcement programs reduce illegal sales and can contribute to reductions in youth smoking.8, 9, 30-32  

To be effective, legislative measures to reduce access need to:7, 33  

 

  • be regularly enforced, in order to ensure high compliance rates
  • involve a penalty that is not so low that it will not act as a deterrent, but not so high that it is not supported by community attitudes
  • be uniform so that minors cannot avoid them by shopping elsewhere.
   

The impact of such laws is further strengthened when they are part of a comprehensive set of tobacco control measures that increase the price of tobacco products and denormalise smoking.34, 35

An Australian study examined the impact of sustained and vigorous enforcement of sales to minors legislation and found that effective enforcement was accompanied by a substantial reduction in attempted purchases of tobacco and of smoking by youth. The impact of the intervention also increased with time.7 Another Australian study over a 15-year period found that stricter controls on youth access to cigarettes were associated with lower smoking prevalence (although this relationship became non-significant after adjusting for other policies, demographics and survey year, possibly due to an absence of information on the strength of enforcement).36  

The US Institute of Medicine produced a report into the Public Health Implications of Raising the Minimum Age of Legal Access to Tobacco Products in 2015.34 It considered the policy options for raising the minimum legal age for tobacco to 19, 21 and 25 nationally. (Some US  states already have a minimum legal age of 19 and 21, but the effects of this have not yet been evaluated.)

The report stated that concerns about adolescent vulnerability to addiction and immaturity of judgement justifies an underage access restriction. Regarding the age at which access to tobacco should become legal, evidence suggests that capabilities related to mature judgement, especially in situations that are emotionally charged and where peer influence plays a role, are still developing into the early 20s. Young people in their late teens and early 20s might also be at elevated risk, neuro-developmentally speaking, of becoming addicted to nicotine. Data strongly suggest that if someone is not a regular tobacco user by 25 years, it is highly unlikely they will become one.
 
Limited international evidence suggests that raising the minimum legal age from 16 to 18 in countries that already have an actively enforced minimum legal age can reduce availability to underage people and thereby reduce use. Evidence from Finland shows that as retailer compliance increases, there is an increase in the use of social sources to obtain tobacco. But substitution of sources is likely to be incomplete, “especially if the youth access policy is implemented in a robust comprehensive tobacco control context”.
 
Experience with raising the minimum legal age for alcohol in the US from 18 to 21 is instructive for tobacco control. It has led to reductions in the use of alcohol and concomitant harms such as car accidents in the underage population. Underage drinking still occurs, but raising the minimum legal age together with rigorous enforcement and penalties for violations has been associated with this and other improved outcomes. Changing the minimum legal age for tobacco would help to change norms about acceptability of use, but this effect may take time to build.
 
The IOM report concludes that increasing the minimum age for tobacco would be likely to prevent or delay initiation of use by adolescents and young adults. Although changes will directly pertain to individuals age 18 and over, the largest proportionate reduction in the initiation of tobacco use will likely occur among adolescents 15 to 17 years old. Modelling commissioned by the Institute of Medicine found that raising the minimum legal age would lead to approximately a 3 per cent decrease in smoking prevalence for an minimum legal age of 19, a 12 per cent decrease for a minimum legal age of 21 and a 16 per cent decrease for a minimum legal age of 25, above and beyond the decrease predicted in the status quo scenario. There is greater certainty on the figures pertaining to minimum legal ages of 19 and 21, compared to 25, due to the greater level of extrapolation needed.
 
Although the full benefits of preventing initiation of tobacco use would take decades to accrue, some direct health benefits, including those from reduced secondhand smoke exposure, would be immediate. 

 
5.21.4 Retailer density and uptake

Greater density of tobacco retailers has been suggested as an important factor in the uptake of smoking. Tobacco retailer density and proximity are associated with adolescent smoking behaviours and susceptibility.37 Areas that are more densely populated with tobacco retailers may promote adolescent smoking not only by increasing access but also by increasing environmental cues to smoke.2  

Tobacco control advocates have called for limitations to be placed on the number of tobacco retail outlets, particularly around schools. For example, zoning restrictions or licencing schemes may be used to restrict the availability and visibility of cigarettes around young people. 2, 38-40

See Section 11.9 for a detailed discussion of retailer density and licencing, and their relationships with smoking behaviours among young people.

5.21.5 Proposals to phase out legal sale of tobacco products 

‘Tobacco free generation’ proposals advocate banning supply of tobacco to those born in or after a specified year. Such proposals claim that minimum age laws are deficient, in that they may create a ‘rite of passage’ for smoking, or reduce perceptions of the harmfulness of smoking.41 In March 2015 the Tasmanian Parliament debated draft legislation (the Public Health Amendment (Tobacco-free Generation/TFG) Bill 2014) making it illegal, from 2018, to supply tobacco to everyone born after 2000. The Bill was introduced by an independent member of the Legislative Council, Ivan Dean, and aimed to create a generation of people not exposed to tobacco products. It is one of the most significant global attempts to slowly phase out cigarette smoking. 

The draft legislation is widely supported by Tasmanian health organisations, while being vigorously opposed by tobacco companies, which claim that the regulations would be difficult to manage and enforce.42, 43  In October 2015 a Parliamentary committee was considering its workability,44 and in 2017 the Tasmanian Government released a report outlining its decision not to proceed with the Tobacco Free Generation Bill, stating, “While the Government commends the intent of the TFG Bill, it continues to hold concerns about its workability and practicality and does not believe that imposing an effective ban on tobacco sales over time is the most realistic way to approach the need to reduce smoking rates”.45  (As an alternative to the tobacco-free generation the Tasmanian Government  later considered raising the legal age of smoking to 21 or 25.46 However, in 2017 it concluded that it would not be proceeding with any changes to the minimum smoking age, but unlike the tobacco-free generation proposal, stated that it may reconsider this measure in future if smoking reduction targets are not met.45)

Cancer Council Queensland has also proposed banning tobacco sales to those born after 2001, and the Queensland health minister expressed openness to the measure.47 The Norwegian Medical Association has similarly proposed a ban on the sale of tobacco products to anyone born after 2000, however the proposal was not perceived as feasible by the government.48

5.21.6 Legislative restrictions for possession, use, or purchase of tobacco by minors 

In the US, state legislation restricting sale of tobacco to minors often includes legislative restrictions for possession, use or purchase of tobacco by minors, however these laws (sometimes referred to as ‘PUP laws’) appear to have little impact on reducing smoking prevalence. One study found no difference in smoking rates between the control and experimental group but did report more young people in the control group smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day.49, 50 Many tobacco-control experts in Australia have recommended caution in regard to this policy approach, arguing that rather than placing the onus on the seller, such laws criminalise purchases by young people, which may have other negative unforeseen consequences.

5.21.7 Tobacco industry approaches

The tobacco industry in Australia and overseas has championed programs aimed at educating tobacco retailers and the general public about sales to minors regulations (see Chapter 10, Section 10.13.1), initiatives thought by critics to be more likely to serve industry ends than to improve public health.51


Recent news and research

For recent news items and research on this topic, click here (Last updated March 2018)  

References

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2. US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among young people: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2012. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2012/.

3. US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among young people: A report of the Surgeon General, 1994. Atlanta, Georgia: Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1994. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/sgr_1994/index.htm.

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16. No authors listed. Oncologists want smoking age raised to 21. SBS News, 2017. Available from: https://www.sbs.com.au/news/oncologists-want-smoking-age-raised-to-21

17. No authors listed. Nick Xenophon pledges to raise legal smoking age. the New Daily, 2017. Available from: https://thenewdaily.com.au/news/state/sa/2018/01/30/nick-xenophon-smoking-age/

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43. No authors listed. Tasmania considers phasing out cigarette sales. ABC News, 2014. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-08-21/upper-house-moves-motion-to-ban-the-sale-of-cigarettes/4214016

44. Walters E and Barnsley K. Tobacco-free generation legislation. Medical Journal of Australia, 2015; 202(10):509–10. Available from: https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2015/202/10/tobacco-free-generation-legislation

45. Report on public health amendment (tobacco free generation) bill 2014: Tasmanian government response. Hobart 2017. Available from: http://www.parliament.tas.gov.au/ctee/Council/Reports/gaa.tfg.govtresponse.ne.001.pdf .

46. Waldhuter L. Tasmanian plans to lift legal smoking age to 21 or 25 could be world first. ABC News, 2015. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-12-21/state-plan-to-lift-tasmanias-legal-smoking-age-above-18/7044622

47. listed Na. Queensland health minister open to lifetime smoking ban for those born after 2001 The Guardian, 2016. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/may/15/queensland-health-minister-open-to-lifetime-smoking-ban-for-those-born-after-2001

48. Marcin T. Norway smoking ban? Tobacco sales to anyone born after 2000 should stop, medical association says. International Business Times, 2016. Available from: http://www.ibtimes.com/norway-smoking-ban-tobacco-sales-anyone-born-after-2000-should-stop-medical-2247689

49. Jason LA, Pokorny SB, Adams ML, Topliff A, Harris CC, et al. Effects of youth tobacco access and possession policy interventions on heavy adolescent smokers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2009; 6(1):1–9. Available from: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/6/1/1

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State/Territory

First legislation banning sales to minors

Date legislation first introduced

Date minimum age for tobacco sales raised to 18 years

Current legislation prohibiting sale of tobacco products to children under 18

NSW

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act of 1903, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.1  

30 November 1903

26 April 1991 - under section 59 of the Public Health Act 1991 (NSW). 2  

Public Health (Tobacco) Act 2008 (NSW), section 22.

Vic

Juvenile Smoking Prevention Act 1906, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 16 years.3  

11 September 1906

1 January 1994 - pursuant to section 4 of the Tobacco (Amendment) Act 1993 (Vic). 4  

Tobacco Act 1987 (Vic), section 12.

Qld

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act 1905, section 2 prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 16 years.5  

24 November 1905

1998 6 – pursuant to sections 10 and 11 of the Tobacco Products (Prevention of Supply to Children) Act 1998 (QLD).

Tobacco and Other Smoking Products Act 1998 (QLD) 7, sections 10 and 11.

WA

Sale of Liquor and Tobacco Act 1916, section 10 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 18 years.8  

2 March 1917

2 March 1917

Tobacco Products Control Act 2006 (WA), section 6.

SA

The Children’s Protection Amendment Act 1904, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any child actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.9  

24 November 1904

1997 10 – pursuant to section 38 of the Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997 11 (SA).

Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997 (SA), section 38A.

Tas

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act 1900, section 3 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 13 years. 12  

20 November 1900

1996 13 - pursuant to section 121C of the Public Health Act 1962 (Tas).

Public Health Act 1997 (TAS) 14, section 64.

NT

The Children’s Protection Amendment Act 1904 (SA), section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any child actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.15  

24 November 1904

24 November 1904

Tobacco Control Act (NT), section 42.

ACT

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act of 1903 (NSW), section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.16  

30 November 1903

1 January 1991 – pursuant to the Tobacco Act 1927.17

Tobacco and Other Smoking Products Act 1927, section 14.

State/Territory

First legislation banning sales to minors

Date legislation first introduced

Date minimum age for tobacco sales raised to 18 years

Current legislation prohibiting sale of tobacco products to children under 18

NSW

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act of 1903, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.1  

30 November 1903

26 April 1991 - under section 59 of the Public Health Act 1991 (NSW). 2  

Public Health (Tobacco) Act 2008 (NSW), section 22.

Vic

Juvenile Smoking Prevention Act 1906, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 16 years.3  

11 September 1906

1 January 1994 - pursuant to section 4 of the Tobacco (Amendment) Act 1993 (Vic). 4  

Tobacco Act 1987 (Vic), section 12.

Qld

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act 1905, section 2 prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 16 years.5  

24 November 1905

1998 6 – pursuant to sections 10 and 11 of the Tobacco Products (Prevention of Supply to Children) Act 1998 (QLD).

Tobacco and Other Smoking Products Act 1998 (QLD) 7, sections 10 and 11.

WA

Sale of Liquor and Tobacco Act 1916, section 10 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 18 years.8  

2 March 1917

2 March 1917

Tobacco Products Control Act 2006 (WA), section 6.

SA

The Children’s Protection Amendment Act 1904, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any child actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.9  

24 November 1904

1997 10 – pursuant to section 38 of the Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997 11 (SA).

Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997 (SA), section 38A.

Tas

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act 1900, section 3 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 13 years. 12  

20 November 1900

1996 13 - pursuant to section 121C of the Public Health Act 1962 (Tas).

Public Health Act 1997 (TAS) 14, section 64.

NT

The Children’s Protection Amendment Act 1904 (SA), section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any child actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.15  

24 November 1904

24 November 1904

Tobacco Control Act (NT), section 42.

ACT

Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act of 1903 (NSW), section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.16  

30 November 1903

1 January 1991 – pursuant to the Tobacco Act 1927.17

Tobacco and Other Smoking Products Act 1927, section 14.

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