11A.6International flow-on effects

Last updated: November 2018

Suggested citation: Scollo, MM & Greenhalgh, EM. 11A.6 International flow-on effects. In Scollo, MM and Winstanley, MH [editors]. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; 2018. Available from: http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-11-advertising/11a-6-international-flow-on-effects      

Thank you to the Canadian Cancer Society for compiling this information over several years,1-3 to Tobacco Free Kids for expanding on and further updating this information4 and to the World Health Organization for its 2016 global status report updated in October 2018.5 This section combines information from all three sources and additional information that has become available since publication of the WHO report.

Australia's legislation has been applauded by respected commentators in tobacco control6, and by international health authorities.8 It has also strengthened the resolve of several other governments to follow Australia's example. As at November 2018, plain packaging laws have been adopted in 15 countries and are already in force in seven—see Table 11A6.1. Proposals for such laws have been tabled in parliaments in six (soon to be seven) countries, and are going through a formal process of consideration in a further three. Proposals are or have been under consideration in at least a further five jurisdictions.5 Political commitments have been made in at least six countries.

11A6.1 Laws adopted and in force

Following the lead of Australia (December 2012), plain packaging has been required at the retail level in  France (since January 1, 2017), the United Kingdom (since May 20, 2017), Norway (since July 1, 2018 ), New Zealand (since June 6, 2018) and Ireland (since September 30, 2018 ). It will be required in Hungary from May 20, 2019, with new brands introduced since August 19, 2016 already required to be in plain packs). 

Table 11A6.1
 Plain packaging: stage of legislative progress in various countries, 4 November 2018

Country Date legislation enacted Date Regulations published Start of sell through period (manufacturer level) Date of full implementation (retail level)▼

Plain packaging regulations in force (7)


Dec 1, 2011

Dec 1, 2011

Oct 1, 2012

Dec1, 2012


Nov 24, 2015

Mar 21, 2016

May 20, 2016

January 1, 2017


Mar 13, 2014

Mar 16, 2015

May 20, 2016

May 20, 2017


Sep 14, 2016

Jun 6, 2017

Mar 14, 2018

Jun 6, 2018


Dec 9, 2016

Jun 26, 2017

July 1, 2017

Jul 1, 2018


Mar 10, 2015

Oct 3, 2017

Sep 30, 2017

Sep 30, 2018


May 20, 2016

Aug 16, 2016



- New brand/variants on market registered after 30/04/16 and on market after 19/08/16




Aug 20, 2016

- New brands/variants registered after 30/4/16 and on the market before 19/08/16



Aug 20, 2016

May 20, 2018

- Brands existing before 30/04/16



May 20, 2017 tba

May 20, 2019 tba

Act awaiting regulations and entry into force but implementation dates announced (3)


Aug 6, 2018


Feb 6, 2019

Feb 6, 2019





Jun 19, 2019


Feb 15, 2017


Jan 1, 2020

Jan 1, 2020

Act awaiting regulations into force, implementation dates not yet known (5)


Dec 27, 2011





Oct 12, 2016





May 30, 2017





May 24, 2018





Apr 2, 2017 ++

Draft approv Nov 13, 18



Legislative proposals tabled (6)







Publicly announced policy process (3)

SINGAPORE (consultation complete, draft legislation to be tabled shortly)+



Source: World Health Organization, Tobacco Plain Packaging Global Status Update, WHO, October 2018 http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/industry/tobacco-plain-packaging-global-status-update/en/

* FCA internal communication, 3 November 20189

**FCA internal communication, 4 November 201810

+ Media release, Singapore Ministry of Health11 

++ Media statement Public Health Minister, 14 November 201812

+++Kingdom of Saudi Arabia notification to WTO13


Details of legislation now in force

France – Plain packaging legislation was adopted Dec 17, 2015.14, 15 This legislation was upheld on Jan 21, 2016 by France’s Constitutional Council.16 On Dec. 23, 2016, the Council of State (France’s highest administrative court) dismissed legal challenges.17 An implementing Decree5 and Decision18 were adopted Mar 21, 2016, and a further Decree adopted Aug. 11, 2016.19 On July 20, 2015, France hosted a 10-country ministerial meeting on plain packaging.20, 21 Packs started appearing on the market in France in May 2016 and all packs were plain by January 2017. A related piece of legislation in France, Decree No 20116-117 of 11, allows the Minister to outlaw specified ‘promotional brand names’ (brand names with characteristics/connotations that promote smoking). On the 6 August 2018, the French Conseil d’Etat (Council of State) referred to the European Court of Justice a request to the Prime Minister by the Federation of Cigar Manufacturers, to repeal this Decree.22

United Kingdom – Plain packaging regulations were approved March 16, 201523 and came into force May 20, 2016, applying to England, Wales5 Northern Ireland5 and Scotland.24 On May 19, 2016, a tobacco industry legal challenge was dismissed, with an appeal dismissed by the Court of Appeal on Nov. 30, 2016, and with application for leave to appeal to the UK Supreme Court dismissed April 12, 2017.25, 26  

New Zealand – Plain packaging legislation was adopted Sep 14, 2016 and regulations approved Jun 6, 2017. Packs came onto the market from Mar 18, 2018 at the manufacturer level and Jun 6 at the retailer level.27-29  

Norway – Plain packaging legislation was adopted Feb 10, 2017 and regulations were adopted June 22, 2017.30 Plain packs have been required from Jul 1, 2017 at the manufacturer level and Jul 1 2018 at the retailer level.31-35 On Nov 6, 2017, the Oslo District Court dismissed an attempt to suspend implementation of plain packaging requirements applying to snuff, pending the outcome of a legal challenge.36  

Ireland – Plain packaging legislation was enacted March 10, 2015,37-40 amended Feb. 16, 2017.41 Packs have been required to be plain since Sep 30, 2017 at manufacturer level and Sept 30 2018 at the retailer level.42  

Hungary – On Aug 16, 2016, Hungary adopted a Decree to require plain packaging.43-45 New brands registered after Apr 30, 2016 and placed on the market from Aug 20, 2016 had to be sold in retail in plan packs. Brands that were registered after Apr 2016 but were already on the market prior to Aug 2016 had until May 20, 2018 to be sold at retail in plain packs. Brands that existed before Apr 2016 must be manufactured in plain packs from May 20, 2017 and must be sold in plain packs from May 20, 2019.

Uruguay – Uruguay’s President stated on Nov 24, 2015 and reiterated on Jul 8, 2016 that plain packaging was being considered.46, 47 A Philip Morris legal claim under a bilateral Switzerland-Uruguay investment agreement was dismissed on Jul 8, 2016, regarding significant packaging restrictions (though not plain packaging).48 Subsequently, on Jul13, 2016, The Health Minister stated that a plain packaging law was being developed and would be implemented in 2017.49 A Government bill providing enabling authority to require plain packaging was introduced in the Senate Nov 6, 2017 and referred to the Public Health Committee Nov 7, 2017.50, 51  A Presidential decree was subsequently issued and the Ministry then issued an ordinance to implement it. This was challenged before the courts on grounds that neither had the power to take the action. The decree was returned to parliament and has been adopted / endorsed by one house, so far as at 14th November 2018. If passed, plain packs are scheduled to be mandated at the retail level from Feb 6, 2019.3

Cook Islands – Plain packaging in practice; packages same as in New Zealand, since June 20183

Monaco – Plain packaging in practice; packages same as in France, since January 20173

11A6.2 Countries that have adopted laws that allow them to put plain packaging decrees or regulations into force

Plain packaging legislation has been passed in Canada, Georgia, Mauritius, Romania, Slovenia and Thailand and the necessary regulations or decrees are currently being finalised in Canada, Slovenia and Thailand. 

Canada – Plain packaging was recommended in 1994 by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Health.52  The Liberal Government elected Oct 19, 2015 committed in electoral platform to implement plain packaging.53 On Nov 13, 2015, the Prime Minister’s mandate letter to the Minister of Health included plain packaging as a ‘top priority’.54 On May 31, 2016, Health Minister Jane Philpott launched a public consultation ending August 31, 2016.55, 56 A government bill, Bill S-5, to elaborate on regulatory authority for plain packaging was approved by the Senate on Jun 1, 2017, received first reading in the House of Commons on June 15, 201757 and was adopted May 23, 2018. Draft regulations were released for comment June 22, 2018, with consultation period ending Sep 6, 2018.(refs) 

Georgia – Legislation was adopted on May 30, 2017 with regulatory authority to require plain packaging.58 The legislation required that a Decree must be adopted by July 2017 and implemented by January 2018, however this has so far not occurred.4

Mauritius – On November 1, 2018, the Cabinet of Ministers of Mauritius approved the introduction of plain packaging. The text reads as follows:

 “Cabinet has taken note of the introduction of Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products in Mauritius in June 2019, in line with the Guidelines for the implementation of Articles 11 and 13 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control which Mauritius ratified in 2004.  The objectives of plain packaging are to – 

 (a) reduce the attractiveness of tobacco products; 

(b) eliminate the effects of tobacco packaging as a form of advertising and promotion; 

(c) address package design techniques that may suggest that some products are less harmful than others; and 

(d) increase the noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings.”

The plan now is to develop regulations to enact  the June 2019 implementation target.9

Romania – A law adopted Nov 4, 2016 includes a provision authorizing government to adopt decision requiring plain packaging59 but regulations have so far not been adopted. 

Slovenia – Act adopted Feb 15, 2017 requires plain packaging effective Jan 1, 2020, and required the Minister of Health to adopt a plain packaging regulation by Sep 8, 2017, for implementation Jan 1, 2020.60, 61  

Thailand – A Thailand government representative stated that plain packaging was under consideration in Nov 2015.4, 62 An Act containing regulatory authority to require plain packaging was gazetted Apr 2, 2017 and came into effect on Jul 4,2017.63, 4 The necessary regulations were approved by the Public Health Ministry on Nov 14, 2018.12

11A.6.3 Legislation being considered by Parliaments

Plain packaging legislation is drafted and before Parliaments in Brasil, Chile, Ecuador, Panama, South Africa and Turkey, and is about to be tabled in Singapore.

Brasil – Five different plain packaging bills have been introduced in the Senate and House of Representatives, most recently in May 2016.4

Chile – A bill was approved by Senate, July 9, 2015, and forwarded to House of Deputies.64 This was approved by the House Health Committee January 22 2018 and was forwarded to House Agricultural Committee.3

Ecuador – A bill for plain packaging was introduced to the National Assembly on August 3, 2016 and was assigned to the health committee.4

Panama – A Bill was introduced to the National Assembly on January 2013. A sub-committee recommended removal making reference to World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS ) agreement, but no further action was taken.4

South Africa – The South African Health Minister stated Jul 24, 2014 that he wanted to implement plain packaging,5 and stated Mar 18, 201565 and May 31, 201666 that legislation will be introduced in Parliament. In Nov, 2017, the Health Minister stated a draft bill would be submitted to Cabinet in early 2018.67 A bill was published May 9, 2018 with consultation period ending Aug 9, 2018. The Bill contained regulatory authority for introduction of plain packaging .11

Turkey – Plain packaging was included in the Government’s national action plan for 2015-2018.68 In August, 2016, the Health Minister stated that plain packaging was under consideration.69 On Feb. 9, 2017, he stated ‘we have completed preparations for the introduction of plain packaging’.70  A plain packaging bill was put to the Turkish Parliament on 30th October 201810 and was under discussion as at 14 November 2018.71


11A6.4 Publicly announced policy process

Saudi Arabia – In October 2018, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia notified the World Trade Organization of its intention to adopt plain packaging regulations.13 

Singapore – On Dec. 29, 2015, Singapore launched a public consultation on plain packaging ending March 29, 2016.72, 73 On Mar. 9, 2017, the Senior Minister of State for Health stated that a further public consultation would be held in 2017.5 On Feb. 4, 2018, Singapore launched a public consultation ending Mar. 16, 2018.5, 74 The Ministry of Health announced on 31 October 2018 that it will propose amendments to the Tobacco (Control of Advertisements and Sale) Act (Cap. 309) in early 2019 to introduce plain packaging into Singapore. Legislative amendments will also be made to the Trade Marks Act (Cap. 332) and the Registered Designs Act (Cap. 266) to ensure that the registration status of tobacco-related trademarks and designs that come under the ambit of the SP Proposal will not be affected. If enacted, the new measures may be expected to take effect from 2020.11

Sri Lanka – On Nov 7, 2016, the Sri Lankan President stated that Minister of Health is proposing to introduce plain packaging “in the near future.”75, 76  On Apr 11, 2018 Government announced that Cabinet had authorised drafting of legislation.3

11A.6.5 Plain packaging under formal government consideration

Plain packaging legislation is or has been under formal consideration in Belgium, Finland, Jersey and Guernsey, Sweden and Taiwan.

Belgium – The Public Health Minister announced Apr 9, 2016 that Belgium was to have plain packaging by 2019.77, 4 He announced Sep 7, 2018 that plain packaging would be legislated for after the required EU notification process.

Finland – The Government national action plan on tobacco (June 2014) includes plain packaging as planned measure.4  

Jersey and Guernsey – On July 3, 2017, the Jersey Minister for Health and Social Services issued instructions to draft plain packaging regulations, with the intent that Jersey and Guernsey would have parallel regulations.78, 79  

Sweden – The Swedish Minister of Health directed the committee examining implementation of the EU Tobacco Product Directive to also consider plain packaging. This was subsequently recommended by the health committee but raised constitutional issues. The Government has yet to propose a bill in response and action seems unlikely in the short to medium term.4  

Taiwan – On Feb. 13, 2017, the Taiwanese Government provided notification of a draft bill containing regulatory authority to require plain packaging.80  

11A.6.6 Countries in which political commitments to plain packaging have been given but in which legislation has not been enacted to date

Expressions of support for implementation of plain packaging have also been made by the governments of 81 Botswana,82 Gambia, Kenya,83  Malaysia, Nepal, and the United Arab Emirates.

Botswana – On May 21, 2016, the Minister of Health announced government intentions to introduce plain packaging.4  

Gambia –The Minister of Health and Welfare stated on August 2, 2016 that his Ministry supported plain packaging and the Government of The Gambia would soon be passing laws requiring it.4  

Kenya – On May 31, 2016 The Cabinet Secretary for Health announced that a formal plan and timeline for implementation would be developed.

Malaysia – On March 21, 2016, the Health Minister said no implementation date would be announced until talks with tobacco companies on intellectual property had concluded.4  

Nepal – On May 8, 2017, Minister of Health announced that Nepal to have plain packaging by 2018.84-86  

United Arab Emirates –The Ministry of Health announced in February 2014 that it intended to introduce legislation that would include plain packaging.4  

11A6.7 Other relevant law

European Union – new Tobacco Products Directive adopted April 3, 2014 explicitly states that 28 EU countries have the option of implementing plain packaging, a provision upheld on May 4, 2016 by the European Court of Justice as valid when dismissing a tobacco industry legal challenge.87-89

Relevant news and research

For recent news items and research on this topic, click here.(Last updated November 2018)



1. Canadian Cancer Society. Cigarette Package Health Warnings: International Status Report, Fourth Edition, 2014. Available from: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/content/press_office/2014/2014_10_14_health_labels.pdf.

2. Canadian Cancer Society. Cigarette Package Health Warnings: International Status Report, Fifth Edition, 2016. Available from: http://www.tobaccolabels.ca/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Cigarette-Package-Health-Warnings-International-Status-Report-English-CCS-Oct-2016.pdf.

3. Canadian Cancer Society. Cigarette Package Health Warnings: International Status Report, Sixth Edition, 2018. Available from: http://www.cancer.ca/~/media/cancer.ca/CW/for%20media/Media%20releases/2018/CCS-international-warnings-report-2018---English---2-MB.pdf?la=fr-CA.

4. Tobacco Free Kids. Standardized of plain tobacco packaging: International developments. Washington 2018. Available from: https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/plainpackaging/tools-resources/policy/international-developments.

5. World Health Organization and Secretariat WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Tobacco Plaiin packaging: global status update. Geneva: WHO, 2018. Available from: http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/industry/tobacco-plain-packaging-global-status-update/en/.

6. West R. Preventing tobacco companies from advertising using their packaging could be an important component of comprehensive tobacco control: a commentary on Australia's plain packaging of cigarettes. Drug & Alcohol Review, 2012; 30(6):681−2. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950467

7. Chapman S and Freeman B. From brand to bland--the demise of cigarette packaging. British Medical Journal, 2011; 343:d4376. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d4376.long

8. Chan DM. WHO Director-General addresses tobacco conference: Keynote address at the World Conference on Tobacco or Health Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Geneva: World Health Organization, 18 March 2015 2015. Available from: http://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2015/trends-tobacco-use/en/

9. Deowan Mohee. Introduction of plain packaging in Mauritius, Ms Kylie Lindorff, Editor 3 Nov 2018, Framework Convention Alliance.

10. Elif Dagli. Plain Packaging bill finally at Turkish Parliament, Ms Kylie Lindorff, Editor 4 Nov 2018, Framework Convention Alliance.


12. Online reporters. Thailand to be Asia's first to enforce plain cigarette packs Bangkok Post, 2018. Available from: https://www.bangkokpost.com/lifestyle/family-and-health/1575750/thailand-to-be-asias-first-to-enforce-plain-cigarette-packs

13. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Notification to World Trade Organization in accordance with Article 10.6,. Riyad, Saudi Arabia 2018.

14. Loi n° 2016-41 du 26 janvier 2016 de modernisation de notre système de santé. [Law n° 2016-41 of 26 January 2016 to modernize our health system] 2016; Available from: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000031912641&dateTexte=&categorieLien=id.

15. Projet de loi relatif à la santé [Bill relating to health], no. 2302. deposited in National Assembly October 15, 2014 2016; Available from: http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/dossiers/sante.asp.

16. Loi de modernisation de notre système de santé [Law to modernize our health system]. Decision n° 2015-727 DC of 21 January 2016; Available from: http://www.conseil-constitutionnel.fr/conseil-constitutionnel/francais/les-decisions/acces-par-date/decisions-depuis-1959/2016/2015-727-dc/decision-n-2015-727-dc-du-21-janvier-2016.146887.html.

17. Société JT International SA, Société d'exploitation industrielle des tabacs et des allumettes, société Philip Morris France SA et autres. Council of State, Dec. 23, 2016, Nos 399117, 399789, 399790, 399824, 399883, 399938, 399997, 402883, 403472, 403823, 404174, 404381, 404394 2016; Available from: http://www.conseil-etat.fr/Decisions-Avis-Publications/Decisions/Selection-des-decisions-faisant-l-objet-d-une-communication-particuliere/CE-23-decembre-2016-societe-JT-International-SA-Societe-d-exploitation-industrielle-des-tabacs-et-des-allumettes-societe-Philip-Morris-France-SA-et-autres.

18. Arrêté du 21 mars 2016 relatif aux conditions de neutralité et d’uniformisation des conditionnements et du papier des cigarettes et du tabac à rouler. NOR : AFSP1607269A [Decision of 21 March 2016 relating to conditions of plain and standardized packaging and cigarette paper and rolling tobacco] 2016; Available from: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jo_pdf.do?id=JORFTEXT000032276123.

19. Décret n° 2016-1117 du 11 août 2016 relatif à la fabrication, à la présentation, à la vente et à l'usage des produits du tabac, des produits du vapotage et des produits à fumer à base de plantes autres que le tabac (amends the Code de la santé publique [Public Health Code]). 2016; Available from: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2016/8/11/AFSP1612356D/jo.

20. Government of France. First ministerial meeting on plain tobacco packaging.  2015. Available from: http://www.social-sante.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/150720_-_PS_-_Plain_Packaging_Meeting.pdf.

21. Plain packaging of tobacco products: a worldwide movement to address a global challenge, in Press kit, First ministerial meeting on plain tobacco packaging, Paris, July 20th, 2015, p.7.2015. Available from: http://www.social-sante.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/150720_-_PK_-_Plain_Packaging_Meeting.pdf.

22. Conseil d’État France. Case C 517/18, Federation des fabricant de cigars v Premier ministre and Ministre des Solidarites et de la Sante. Official Journal of the European Union, 2018. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.C_.2018.364.01.0009.01.ENG&toc=OJ:C:2018:364:TOC.

23. Children and Families Act 2014. Enabling legislation approved by Parliament March 13, no. 6, section 94 2014; Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2014/6/pdfs/ukpga_20140006_en.pdf.

24. Scottish Government. Plain tobacco packaging (news release) Jan 22,  2015. Available from: http://news.scotland.gov.uk/News/Plain-tobacco-packaging-14da.aspx

25. British American Tobacco & others v Department of Health. EWHC 1169 (Admin), England and Wales High Court of Justice, Queen’s Bench Division, Administrative Court, May 19 2016; Available from: https://www.judiciary.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/bat-v-doh-summary.pdf.

26. British American Tobacco UK Ltd & Others v The Secretary of State for Health EWCA Civ 1182, November 30 2016; Available from: http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Civ/2016/1182.html.

27. Smoke-free Environments (Tobacco Standardised Packaging) Amendment Act 2016. 2016 no 43, adopted Sept 14, 2016 2016; Available from: http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2016/0043/latest/DLM5821008.html.

28. Smoke-Free Environments Regulations 2017. LI 2017/123, approved June 6 2017; Available from: http://www.legislation.govt.nz/regulation/public/2017/0123/latest/whole.html?search=ts_act%40bill%40regulation%40deemedreg_smoke_resel_25_a&p=1#DLM7282702.

29. New Zealand Ministry of Health. Standardised Tobacco Products and Packaging Draft Regulations, in Consultation document May 312016. Available from: https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/standardised-tobacco-products-and-packaging-draft-regulations.

30. Regulations amending the regulation on content and labeling of tobacco products. FOR-2017-06-22-942, adopted June 22 2017; Available from: https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2017-06-22-942?q=Tobakksskadeloven.

31. Bill 142L, in Law amending the Tobacco Control Act (implementation of Directive 2014/40 /EU and standardised tobacco packaging), June 102016. Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Norway/Norway%20-%20Law%20Amd%27ing%20TC%20Act%20%282017%29.pdf.

32. Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. Advertising-free tobacco packs from 1 July 2017, in Mar. 31, 2017 (news release) (Norwegian)2017. Available from: https://www.regjeringen.no/no/aktuelt/reklamefrie-tobakkspakninger-fra-1.-juli-2017/id2547043/.

33. Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. Norway consults on standardised tobacco packaging and FCTC Article 5.3, in (press release) March 172015. Available from: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/norway-consults-on-standardised-tobacco-packaging-and-fctc-article-5.3/id2401001/.

34. Draft amendments to Act No. 14 of 9 March 1973 relating to Prevention of the Harmful Effects of Tobacco (Standardised packaging) and draft amendment to Regulations no 141 of 6 February 2003 on the contents and labelling of Tobacco products, in May 52015. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tris/en/search/?trisaction=search.detail&year=2015&num=9009.

35. Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. Towards a Tobacco-Free Generation, in May 31, 2016 (news release)2016. Available from: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/towards-a-tobacco-free-generation/id2502147/.

36. Swedish Match AB v. The Norwegian State, represented by the Ministry of Health and Care Services. Oslo District Court, Nov. 6 2017; Available from: https://www.domstol.no/globalassets/upload/obyf/internett/aktuelt/kjennelser/17-110415tvi_swedish-match-ab.pdf.

37. Public Health (Standardised Packaging of Tobacco) Act 2015. Number 4 of 2015, enacted March 10, 2015; Available from: http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2015/act/4/enacted/en/print.html.

38. Public Health (Standardised Packaging of Tobacco) Act 2015. (Commencement) Order 2017, S.I. No. 115/2017, Mar. 29 2017; Available from: http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2017/si/115/made/en/print.

39. Public Health (Standardised Packaging of Tobacco) Regulations 2017. S.I. No. 422 of 2017 2017; Available from: http://health.gov.ie/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/si422.pdf.

40. Public Health (Standardised Packaging of Tobacco) Bill 2014. Bill Number 54 of 2014 2014; Available from: http://www.oireachtas.ie/viewdoc.asp?DocID=26331&&CatID=59.

41. Health (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2017. Number 1 of 2017, 2017; Available from: http://www.oireachtas.ie/documents/bills28/acts/2017/a0117.pdf.

42. Ireland Department of Health. Standardised Packaging of Tobacco to be signed into law, to come into force in September, in March 29, 2017 (news release)2017. Available from: http://health.gov.ie/blog/press-release/standardised-packaging-of-tobacco-to-be-signed-into-law-to-come-into-force-in-september/.

43. Decree 239/2016 of 16 August 2016. Amendment to Government Decree 39/2013 of 14 February 2013 on the manufacture, placement on the market and control of tobacco products, combined warnings and the detailed rules for the application of the health-protection fine 2016.

44. in Hungary Gazette, August 162016. Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Hungary/Hungary%20-%20Regulation%20239_2016.pdf.

45. Amendment to Government Decree 39/2013 of 14 February 2013 on the manufacture, placement on the market and control of tobacco products, combined warnings and the detailed rules for the application of the health-protection fine (the 'Implementation Decree')” (Draft). 2015; Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tris/en/index.cfm/search/?trisaction=search.detail&year=2015&num=529&mLang=EN.

46. Vázquez anunció más medidas para luchar contra el tabaquismo [Vazquez announces more measures to combat smoking], in El Diario, November 242015. Available from: http://eldiario.com.uy/2015/11/24/vazquez-anuncio-mas-medidas-para-luchar-contra-el-tabaquismo/.

47. Próxima etapa de la campaña antitabaco: las cajillas planas [Next stage in the anti-tobacco campaign: Plain packs], in El Pais, July 102016. Available from: http://www.elpais.com.uy/informacion/proxima-etapa-campana-antitabaco-cajillas.html.

48. Philip Morris Brands Sàrl, Philip Morris Products S.A. and Abal Hermanos S.A. v. Oriental Republic of Uruguay. International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, ICSID Case No. ARB/10/7, July 8 2016; Available from: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/content/press_office/2016/2016_07_08_uruguay.pdf.

49. Empaquetado genérico para reducir el atractivo del tabaco en 2017, in Espectador, July 132017. Available from: http://www.espectador.com/salud/338068/empaquetado-generico-para-reducir-el-atractivo-del-tabaco-en-2017.

50. Tabaco. Productos. Etiquetao. Empaquetado. Modificación. Bill 936/2017; Available from: https://parlamento.gub.uy/documentosyleyes/ficha-asunto/137365/ficha_completa.

51. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Uruguay set to become a world leader for restricting tobacco branding as plain packaging bill reaches Congress, in November 72017. Available from: https://www.theunion.org/news-centre/news/uruguay-set-to-become-a-world-leader-for-restricting-tobacco-branding-as-plain-packaging-bill-reaches-congress.

52. House of Commons Standing Committee on Health. Towards Zero Consumption: Generic Packaging of Tobacco Products, in Report of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Health1994.

53. Liberal Party. New plan for strong middle class. Available from: https://www.liberal.ca/files/2015/10/New-plan-for-a-strong-middle-class.pdf.

54. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. Letter to Dr. Jane Philpott, Minister of Health (Minister of Health Mandate Letter), in November 132015. Available from: http://pm.gc.ca/eng/minister-health-mandate-letter.

55. Health Canada. Minister Philpott Launches Public Consultations on Tobacco Plain Packaging, in May 31, 2016 (news release)2016. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2016/05/minister-philpott-launches-public-consultations-on-tobacco-plain-packaging.html.

56. Health Canada. Consultation on “Plain and Standardized Packaging" for Tobacco Products, in Potential measures for regulating the appearance, shape and size of tobacco packages and of tobacco products. Document for consultation.” May 2016. (released May 31, 2016)2016. Available from: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-system-systeme-sante/consultations/tobacco-packages-emballages-produits-tabac/document-eng.php.

57. Bill S-5. An Act to amend the Tobacco Act and the Non-smokers’ Health Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts 2016; Available from: http://www.parl.ca/Content/Bills/421/Government/S-5/S-5_3/S-5_3.PDF.

58. Law No. 860-IIC Amending the Law on Advertising. approved by Parliament May 17 2017; Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Georgia/Georgia%20-%202017%20APS%20Amendments%20-%20national.pdf.

59. Law no. 201 of 2016 regarding the conditions for manufacturing, presentation and selling of tobacco products and modifying the Law no. 349/2002 regarding prevention and counteracting the effects of tobacco consumption. Article 24. Bill PLx no. 272/2016; Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Romania/Romania%20-%20Law%20No.%20201_2016.pdf.

60. The Restriction of the Use of Tobacco Products Act. Feb. 24 2017; Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Slovenia/Slovenia%20-%20TC%20Act%202017.pdf.

61. Draft Act restricting the use of tobacco and related products, in provided to the European Commission on May 262016. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tris/en/search/?trisaction=search.detail&year=2016&num=135.

62. Deboonme A. Thailand faces tough fight on plain packaging, in The Nation2016. Available from: http://www.nationmultimedia.com/opinion/Thailand-faces-tough-fight-on-plain-packaging-30293004.html.

63. Tobacco Products Control Act of A.D. 2017. article 38 2017; Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Thailand/Thailand%20-%20TC%20Act%202017.pdf.

64. Bill N° 162/SEC/15. July 9 2015.

65. The Minister of Health. Statement at the 16th World Conference on Tobacco or Health held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, March 18, 2015. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4z9EHS_LehE.

66. No branding, logos or colours - SA gets tough on cigarettes, in City Press, May 312016. Available from: http://city-press.news24.com/News/no-branding-logos-or-colours-sa-gets-tough-on-cigarettes-20160531.

67. 5 big changes on the cards under South Africa’s new smoking laws in 2018, in BusinessTech, Nov. 132017. Available from: https://businesstech.co.za/news/business/210419/5-big-changes-on-the-cards-under-south-africas-new-smoking-laws-in-2018/.

68. Government of Turkey. Turkish National Tobacco Control Program and Plan of Action 2015-2018, in p.27, item 1.12015. Available from: http://www.thsk.gov.tr/dosya/birimler/tutun_mucadele_db/dokumanlar/29012015/ulusal-tutun-kontrol-programi-eylem-plani.pdf.

69. Youth smoking on rise as authorities mull measures, in Daily Sabah, August 272016. Available from: http://www.dailysabah.com/nation/2016/08/27/youth-smoking-on-rise-as-authorities-mull-measures.

70. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Tobacco control activities in Turkey enter a new phase, with leaders looking to ensure sustainability, in Feb. 242017. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/countries/turkey/news/news/2017/02/tobacco-control-activities-in-turkey-enter-a-new-phase,-with-leaders-looking-to-ensure-sustainability.

71. Sigarada "düz paket"e bir adım daha yaklaşılıyor. 2018. Available from: https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/saglik/sigarada-duz-pakete-bir-adim-daha-yaklasiliyor/1302392

72. The Dec. 29, 2015 Singapore Health Promotion Board announcement of the consultation can be seen here. Available from: https://www.hpb.gov.sg/article/public-consultation-on-potential-measures-to-enhance-singapore%27s-tobacco-control-policies.

73. The Singapore Government had previously announced that it would initiate a consultation by the end of 2015; see Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Health, statement in Singapore Parliament, March 12, 2015:.

74. Singapore. Consultation document and other related documents. 2018. Available from: www.moh.gov.sg/proposed-tobacco-control-measures

75. Address by Sri Lanka President Maithripala Sirisena. Seventh Session of the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, in Delhi, India, Nov. 72016. Available from: http://www.who.int/fctc/cop/cop7/FCTC_COP_7_DIV6_EN.pdf?ua=1.

76. Press Trust of India. Sri Lanka to introduce plain packaging of tobacco products, in India Today, Nov. 72016. Available from: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/sri-lanka-to-introduce-plain-packaging-of-tobacco-products/1/804453.html.

77. Camara AM. Gambia to Embrace Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products, in Daily Observer, August 42016.

78. Minister for Health and Social Services. Tobacco: Plain Packaging Standardisation: Law drafting instructions, in Decision Reference MD-HSS-2017-0063, July 32017. Available from: https://www.gov.je/government/planningperformance/pages/ministerialdecisions.aspx?docid=26301E7F-2D9A-4771-9BED-88E1283523BF.

79. Plain tobacco packaging law enforced in Jersey, in ITV, July 72017. Available from: http://www.itv.com/news/channel/2017-07-07/plain-tobacco-packaging-law-enforced-in-jersey/.

80. Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act Amendment Bill (draft). notified to World Trade Organization, Feb. 13, 2017, G/TBT/N/TPKM/264. See Article 6 of draft bill. 2017; Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tbt/en/search/?tbtaction=search.detail&Country_ID=TPKM&num=264&dspLang=en&basdatedeb=&basdatefin=&baspays=&basnotifnum=&basnotifnum2=&bastypepays=ANY&baskeywords=tobacco

81. No author listed. Gambia to Embrace Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products, in African Tobacco Control Alliance2016. Available from: http://atca-africa.org/en/news-and-events/africa-news/114-article-africa-news/440-gambia-gambia-to-embrace-plain-packaging-of-tobacco-products.

82. Botswana Ministry of Health. World no tobacco day, in Botswana Ministry of Health2016. Available from: http://www.moh.gov.bw/news_events/world_no_tobacco.html.

83. Kairu P. New headache for tobacco companies as Health ministry seeks to enforce plain packaging for cigarettes, in Daily Nation2016. Available from: https://www.nation.co.ke/news/-/1056/3227228/-/pitjd4z/-/index.html.

84. Gagan Kumar Thapa NsMoH. Address to South Asia Tobacco Control Leadership Program, in (8 to 13 May 2017, Hotel Annapurna, Durbar Marg), May 8, 2017, Kathmandu, Nepal.2017.

85. South Asian tobacco control leadership meet concludes. Himalayan Times, 2017. Available from: https://thehimalayantimes.com/kathmandu/south-asian-tobacco-control-leadership-meet-concludes/

86. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union). Nepal hosts regional tobacco control leadership programme, in May 312017. Available from: http://www.theunion.org/news-centre/news/nepal-hosts-regional-tobacco-control-leadership-programme.

87. Philip Morris Brands and Others. European Court of Justice, May 4, 2016, Case C-547-14.; Available from: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/document/document.jsf;jsessionid=9ea7d2dc30d5b4ac128357df4fc8b24389847d7897f5.e34KaxiLc3qMb40Rch0SaxuTa350?text=&docid=177724&pageIndex=0&doclang=en&mode=req&dir=&occ=first&part=1&cid=185180.

88. JTI-Ireland v Minister of Health and others. [2015] IEHC 481, 2015 2530 P, July 7, 2015; Available from: http://www.courts.ie/Judgments.nsf/0/68C14CFFE270C72D80257E93005048D8.

89. Philip Morris and Others v. The Secretary of State for Health. High Court of England and Wales (Administrative Division), [2014] EWHC 3669 (Admin), Case No: CO/2969/2014 and CO/2971/2014, Nov. 7, 2014.; Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/litigation/decisions/gb-20141107-r-on-the-application-of-philip .

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