7.7 Factors that predict success or failure in quit attempts

Last updated: October 2016 

Suggested citation: Greenhalgh EM, Stillman S, & Ford C. 7.7 Factors that predict success or failure in quit attempts. In Scollo, MM and Winstanley, MH [editors]. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; 2016. Available from http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/7-7-personal-factors-associated-with-quitting

There are many factors that can influence the success or failure of quit attempts,1-5 including:1, 2  

  • physiological (e.g. level of nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms)
  • behavioural (e.g. slip-ups, pattern of smoking)
  • environmental (e.g. living or working with smokers, having smoking friends, home or workplace subject to smokefree policies or seeing tobacco products displayed)
  • psychological or emotional/affective (e.g. stress, depression, anxiety, psychiatric disorders) 
  • cognitive (e.g. knowledge, self-exempting beliefs, perceived disadvantages, motivation, self-efficacy) 
  • barriers to access to interventions (e.g. affordable quitting medications, treatment programs) 
  • social context or life circumstances that may result in the smoker giving quitting a low priority (e.g. poverty, social isolation, lack of perceived safety, social norms).

Adult population-level studies from a number of countries suggest that, of all these factors, greater nicotine dependence (quantified through measures such as time to first cigarette and numbers of cigarettes smoked per day) is the factor most consistently predictive of failure in quitting.6, 7 Social smoking cues and a recently failed quit attempt are also important predictors.8, 9 A systematic review found little association between gender, marital status, age, evaluations of smoking and quitting and success in quit attempts, and inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between successful quitting and income, education level, smoking restrictions at home, quitting history, desire to quit, and confidence.7

For young women, there is evidence that lifestyle and life-stage factors are determinants of smoking behaviour. For this group, recent illicit drug use and high-risk drinking appear to be related to relapse, while marriage or being in a successful relationship and moderate to high physical activity levels are associated with successful quitting.10 Some of these factors are examined in more detail below.

7.7.1 Individual differences that predict success or failure in quit attempts

While factors associated with quitting vary between studies and individuals, there are some reasonably consistent findings. The focus of most studies has been on individual psychological and demographic factors associated with success or failure in quitting. Some of these factors can also influence how satisfied a person feels with quitting.11 There are large changes in a person’s beliefs, experiences and expectations in the days and weeks after quitting.12, 13 Lower abstinence self-efficacy and higher frequency of urges to smoke can predict subsequent relapse,14, 15 as can deficits in impulse control.13 Quitting on a date coinciding with a particular phase of a woman’s menstrual cycle can also reduce success.16, 17 Some particular characteristics are outlined below. Duration of smoking

Evidence on the relationship between age and cessation is inconsistent.1, 6, 7, 18 Several international studies indicate a trend for smokers who start smoking at a later age to be more likely to quit.18-24 Based on these findings, interventions that at least delay the onset of smoking by adolescents may increase their likelihood of later quitting,21 however there is no longitudinal evidence to show that such an approach is effective.

While younger smokers may be more likely to make a quit attempt,6 older people may be more likely to succeed. However, many older smokers are unwilling to try to quit because of mistaken beliefs that it is too late to quit as damage has already been done, that they have the genetic make-up to protect them from the harm of smoking, and/or that they will not benefit much from quitting.25 Level of dependence (heaviness, time to first cigarette)

Smokers with a higher level of nicotine dependence are less likely to make an attempt to quit and also to find it more difficult,6-8, 18, 26-29 particularly in the early stages of a quit attempt.30 This may reflect more severe withdrawal symptoms, more pronounced neuro-adaptation (changes to the brain from nicotine exposure), a greater constitutional need for nicotine, a more highly learned and deeply ingrained habit, or possibly a physical or social environment that discourages staying quit (i.e. one with more cues and opportunities to smoke).3, 6, 31, 32 There is also evidence that more dependent smokers experience greater negative affect and craving pre- and post-quit regardless of their cessation status and that these factors are associated with relapse.33, 34 Getting out of bed to smoke during the night is an indicator of nicotine dependence, and there is some evidence that night smokers who report significant sleep disturbance are at particular risk of relapse when they try to quit.35, 36 More research is needed to substantiate this relationship.37 A longitudinal study in California found that higher nicotine dependence smokers started smoking earlier in life, highlighting the importance of preventing nicotine use among young people.24 Data from the Californian Quitline shows that dependent smokers often make numerous attempts to quit before they are successful, suggesting that those who are unsuccessful on any one attempt should be encouraged to try again.38

See Chapter 6 for further information on addiction to tobacco and measures of nicotine dependence. Severity of withdrawal symptoms

One of the main motives for continued smoking is to relieve nicotine withdrawal syndrome3 (discussed more fully in Chapter 6). The major symptoms of nicotine withdrawal syndrome include mood changes such as irritability, aggression, anxiety and depression; restlessness; poor concentration; increased appetite; cravings/urges to smoke; disturbed sleep; decreased heart rate; and decreased levels of adrenaline and cortisol.39 Withdrawal symptoms are generally most intense in the first week after quitting, and last a further two to four weeks.39 However, withdrawal symptoms can be highly variable, both across persons and over time.40 In some people symptoms can be chaotic; they may fall and rise, or they may not decline for a number of weeks.31, 39, 41 In one study tracking withdrawal symptoms in real time, reports of recent smoking, exposure to someone smoking, and stress were all associated with worse cravings, negative affect, and greater experiences of other withdrawal symptoms in the weeks after quitting, but individual responses varied greatly.42 Although withdrawal can last several weeks or more, prolonged withdrawal states beyond six months do not appear to occur with cigarette cessation.39 Relapse is often related to greater severity of symptoms, greater day-to-day symptom volatility, increases in symptoms over time, and a greater degree of symptom relief associated with re-uptake of smoking.41, 43

Urges to smoke/cravings are a core component of withdrawal and a powerful predictor of relapse.3, 14, 18, 34, 44, 45 They are strongly related to nicotine dependence, and are typically most intense within the first two days after quitting. Nicotine replacement products can help reduce their severity.3, 31, 46 Cravings appear to be related to negative affect.33 However, urges to smoke can also be triggered by cues associated with smoking, even, in some cases, months or years after quitting.47-49 Genetic influences

Building on earlier observations that concordance rates are higher in monozygotic compared to dizygotic twins for both persistent smoking and for successful quitting,50 modern research has identified robust genetic influences on nicotine dependence.51, 52 Multiple large-scale meta-analyses have supported the relationship between certain genetic variants and smoking heaviness (defined by cigarettes per day).53-56 Carrying a high-risk genetic variant seems to be an important predictor of how heavily a person will smoke, his or her level of addiction, and the probability of relapse after attempting to quit.57

Genetic influences have been estimated to account for about half of the variance in risk for failed smoking cessation,58 and along with level of dependence, genetic variants can also influence the effectiveness of pharmacologic cessation therapies. A 2012 randomised controlled trial found that smokers with high-risk genetic variants were three times more likely than smokers with a low-risk variant to respond to nicotine patches, nicotine lozenges, or bupropion alone, or combinations of patches and lozenges or lozenges and bupropion.59 A 2015 meta-analysis revealed a significant association between genetic variation in the dopamine pathway (which is widely implicated in nicotine addiction) and smoking cessation,60 and several candidate genes within this pathway have been reported to be associated with the efficacy of bupropion and NRT.61 Variants in another gene have been shown to affect the rate of nicotine metabolism, and one study found that NRT is effective among individuals with fast, but not slow, nicotine metabolism. Fast metabolisers may be at greater risk of relapse because when their nicotine levels drop rapidly, they experience more cravings; NRT seems to help alleviate this.62 Taken together, these findings have prompted suggestions that developing personalised smoking cessation interventions based on a person’s genetic risk factors could lead to greater success in smoking cessation interventions.59, 62 A cohort study of smokers in the UK found that attributing smoking to genetic factors is associated with lower levels of perceived control over smoking but not lower quit rates, suggesting that learning of one's genetic predisposition to smoking as part of a personalised smoking cessation intervention may not deter quitting.63 History of previous failed quit attempts

Research indicates that previous attempts at quitting, and the recency and duration of quit attempts predicts making another quit attempt.6, 20 Smokers who have made recent attempts to quit are more likely to try again, and those whose previous attempts have lasted longer are more likely to successfully stop.6, 64-66 Results from a longitudinal study of adult smokers from Canada, the US, the UK, and Australia (the ITC-4 study) showed that ever having made a quit attempt, especially within the previous year, strongly predicted subsequent quit attempts. The likelihood of subsequent attempts decreased with time since last quit attempt, suggesting that rather than being demoralised by failed attempts, smokers may instead be motivated to try again. However, findings also showed that the likelihood of achieving sustained abstinence was reduced for smokers with a failed quit attempt within the last year, and even more so for those with two or more failed attempts. Smokers who repeatedly try to quit, but fail, may therefore need tailored support in order to stay quit.9 Nonetheless, even unsuccessful quit attempts can be beneficial; smokers who relapse are more likely to reduce consumption compared to those not making a quit attempt,67 which can be a useful step toward complete cessation.68 Low confidence, poor self-efficacy

Self-efficacy is the belief or confidence that one has the capacity to perform a behaviour, and that the action will achieve its desired outcome. Self-efficacy is an important tenet of social cognitive theory (see Section 7.3), and is often thought to underpin motivation and to be a requirement for behaviour change, along with having actual skills, knowledge and opportunity.69, 70 According to the theory, behaviour change comprises a number of phases, each affected by self-efficacy beliefs.70 In the context of smoking cessation, these can include considering quitting, motivating oneself to stop smoking, persevering with the change, being vulnerable to relapse, recovering after a setback, and adjusting to and maintaining a non-smoker lifestyle. One study has shown that self-efficacy judgements and expectations are predicted by a person’s smoking behaviour and quitting history.71

In general, high self-efficacy is a predictor of success at smoking cessation in the short to medium term.14, 72, 73 Self-efficacy is reinforced by success,69 but tends to decrease following relapse.74 Some researchers have suggested that further investigation is warranted into the notion of self-efficacy as a reflection of recent smoking behaviour change rather than solely as a cause.75 Evidence suggests that drops in self-efficacy are associated with progression from one lapse to the next.76 Some additional factors can also affect a person’s self-efficacy; in one study, self-efficacy for quitting tended to be lower in people from low socio-economic backgrounds,77 while in another, smokers who were experiencing pain had reduced self-efficacy for future smoking abstinence.78

There is some evidence that self-efficacy may be less influential than previously thought, and that some studies may have overestimated its importance by failing to appropriately control for smoking behaviour at the time of self-efficacy assessment.79 The predictive power of people’s self-efficacy beliefs may be limited by their limited understanding of the challenges associated with quitting, or influenced by the phase of change they are in at the time of measuring self-efficacy. For example, if a person bases their self-efficacy beliefs on his or her confidence at resisting temptations to smoke immediately after quitting, but does not consider the need to adjust to a non-smoking lifestyle in the longer term, then self-efficacy may not have as much value for predicting long-term success.72, 80-82 Further, self-efficacy beliefs based on past quitting experience may be better informed than pre-quitting expectations.73 Nonetheless, a number of more recent studies have affirmed self-efficacy as an important predictor of quitting behaviours and maintaining abstinence.83-86 Impulsivity, sensation seeking, and time perspective

Impulsivity and sensation seeking are related, individual differences that have been linked to risky behaviour, including smoking initiation, smoking status, and smoking cessation.87 Sensation seeking refers to a person’s tendency to seek out and engage in thrilling activities, while impulsivity is a person’s tendency to act in haste, without sufficient reflection.88 Several studies have found that people with higher sensation seeking and/or impulsivity scores are less likely to succeed in quitting smoking.89-92 The ITC-4 study found that the related construct of time perspective is also an important determinant of smoking cessation; smokers with a stronger future orientation at baseline (i.e., a tendency to consider future outcomes, and value them more highly than more immediate happenings) were more likely to have tried to quit93 and also more likely to have successfully quit at follow-up. This relationship was largely explained by consistent involvement in quit-related behaviours among future-oriented smokers.87

In an attempt to better understand the mechanisms underlying these relationships, one study found that higher sensation seeking predicted lower compliance with NRT and cessation strategies, which in turn reduced the odds of abstinence.89 Researchers have theorised that people high in sensation seeking may be less able to engage in non-automatic planned strategies (such as making plans for high risk situations, thinking about the benefits of quitting, or avoiding situations that could trigger smoking) that would help them to avoid relapse. They suggest that smokers high in sensation seeking might therefore benefit from behavioural rehearsal of cessation strategies and emphasis on compliance, in order to alleviate the effects of strategic processing deficits among such smokers.89 Similarly, results from the ITC-4 study suggest that encouraging smokers to adopt a future-oriented time perspective, and emphasising the importance of maintaining engagement in the quit cycle by making repeated cessation attempts over time, may be useful components of a tailored intervention.87 Concern about weight gain

Fear of weight gain is a significant factor in discouraging quitting and provoking relapse in smokers.5, 94-102 Researchers that developed a specific measure of smoking-related weight concerns found that four factors—smoking to suppress appetite, smoking to prevent overeating, smoking to cope with body dissatisfaction, and withdrawal-related appetite increases—predicted smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns.103 Some evidence suggests that weight gain after quitting is of greater concern to younger women.104 Concerns about weight when trying to quit is associated with higher body mass index, intention to quit, more previous quit attempts, and less support for quitting.105 Such concerns can also attenuate the effectiveness of tobacco control policies—including cigarette price increases, smokefree laws, or anti-tobacco messaging—on quit attempts.106

(See Section 7.1.2 for further information on the effects of cessation on weight. See Chapter 3, Section 3.29 for information on the health effects of smoking in conjunction with and compared with the health effects of obesity.) Disturbances of mood

Negative affect is a core component of withdrawal, and an important predictor of craving,33, 107 urge to smoke, and relapse.34, 108, 109 Compared to sustained quitters, those who relapse are more likely to report symptoms of emotional distress26 and negative mood.15 There is evidence that smoking may decrease happiness and stopping may increase it.110 Research also suggests that anhedonia (an affective dimension related to the inability to experience pleasure) is associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes.111 For those who have quit smoking, positive experiences—such as the capacity to enjoy life’s simple pleasures, ability to calm down when stressed or upset, and ability to control negative emotions—increase over time.13

Stress and negative affect

Smokers frequently perceive smoking to be a way of managing stress. However, individual smokers’ understanding of how smoking relates to stress can vary.112 Smoking is commonly perceived to promote relaxation, calmness or ease.3, 112 It is sometimes used as a distraction from problems, or in an attempt to convey to others that the smoker is under stress.112

Findings on the relationship between negative affect, stress and smoking have been mixed and suggest a complex association.113, 114 Smokers report more stress and negative affect relative to non-smokers.113, 115-117 In Australia in 2013, daily smokers were twice as likely to have high/very high levels of psychological distress compared with people who had never smoked and were twice as likely to have been diagnosed or treated for a mental health condition.118 It is possible that smoking itself, withdrawal symptoms, or a combination of the two create higher stress levels among smokers. However, smokers also smoke in response to negative life events and laboratory stressors, suggesting that smoking may play some role in stress relief.113

Researchers have tried to determine whether nicotine genuinely improves mood or merely relieves withdrawal symptoms. The strongest evidence suggests that the interplay between stress, negative affect, and smoking can be explained by withdrawal escape (i.e., the relief of withdrawal symptoms).113 The daily mood changes of smokers show a normal pattern during smoking, but a worsening mood pattern between cigarettes.3, 119 Withdrawal symptoms include irritability, anger, frustration, anxiety and depressive symptoms,39, 120 which are generally experienced within two hours of last smoking,42, 114, 121 and are relieved by smoking. After repeated experiences of alleviating these withdrawal mood symptoms, negative affect may become a cue for smoking even when it occurs independently of nicotine withdrawal.113

Despite smokers commonly citing relief from negative affect as a motive for smoking, real-time studies have found little correlation between affect and smoking behaviour during regular smoking.41 However, during smoking cessation there appears a strong connection between stress, negative affect and lapses to smoking, particularly first lapses.13, 41, 113 One study found that negative affect and concentration difficulty during early withdrawal, most notably anxiety, predicted poorer quit attempt outcomes.122 Conversely, smokers with a positive outlook are more likely to succeed in quitting and have less desire to smoke again.117 Further, lapses appear to mostly result in increases in negative affect, particularly guilt and discouragement and a decrease in self-efficacy.113, 116 One study found that compared with relapsed smokers, abstinent smokers reported lower withdrawal symptoms, craving, and negative affect.123 Evidence also suggests that smokers with more financial stress are less likely to quit124 and more likely to relapse.125, 126 Individuals who are high in personality traits such as hostility and anger also seem to experience greater negative affect and severe symptoms during quit attempts.127-129

Quitting generally results in lower stress and negative affect over time. Although smokers usually experience an increase in stress and negative affect in the weeks after they quit, these symptoms eventually diminish to levels lower than when they smoked.3, 113, 130


Smoking and depression often co-occur. Compared to non-smokers, smokers report more depressive symptoms, more frequent and severe episodes of depression and higher rates of suicidal ideation and suicide.131

Having a history of depression, in itself, does not seem to substantially jeopardise successful quitting.132-134 However, depressive symptoms may increase the likelihood of relapse.135, 136

(See Section for further information on how best to encourage and support smoking cessation among those with depression.)

Anxiety sensitivity

Studies have consistently shown that high anxiety sensitivity (i.e., fear of anxiety-related sensations) plays an important role in smoking maintenance and cessation failure. Smokers with high anxiety sensitivity are more likely to perceive and experience smoking as effective in reducing negative affect137, 138 and anxiety.139 Such smokers also perceive quitting as more difficult compared with those low in anxiety sensitivity,140 experience more intense withdrawal symptoms,141 and have greater odds of early smoking lapse142 and relapse.143 A 2014 experimental study found that anxiety sensitivity amplified the effects of acute abstinence on nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking urges, which may help explain the greater likelihood of relapse among smokers who score highly on this measure.144 (See Section 7.12 for further information.) Other individual factors

[content in development] 

7.7.2 Environmental factors that predict success or failure in quit attempts

External factors that increase the difficulty of staying quit include environmental ‘cues’ to smoke. Cue reactivity, which refers to smokers’ heightened physiological and subjective reactions to smoking-related stimuli, is increasingly being studied in relation to cessation.145-149 The roles of cue reactivity, social factors, and tobacco advertising and promotion in promoting cravings and undermining cessation attempts are discussed in greater detail below. Social factors

A person’s environment plays an important role in his or her likelihood of achieving abstinence from smoking.150 Smokers whose social contexts include a greater number of smokers may be exposed to more positive norms toward smoking and more cues to smoke,151 which can make quitting more difficult.32 The smell of other people’s smoke can cause a general urge to smoke, which relates to relapse.152 Conversely, smokers who lose smoking friends over time are more likely to intend to quit, attempt to quit, and succeed in their quit attempts.151 While quitting is associated with less contact with smokers over time, overall it appears to widen a person’s social circle, rather than narrow it.153

Smokers often report that receiving support from close others was an integral part of achieving successful cessation.154 Among a sample of women smokers in the US, increased social support appeared to act as a buffer from the harmful effects of cessation-related withdrawal symptoms, which in turn improved cessation outcomes.155 The smoking status of a person’s partner can substantially influence smoking persistence and behaviour change,156, 157 with partners of current smokers being significantly less likely to quit than those with non-smoking partners.158, 159 Smokers tend to be less supportive than nonsmokers of their partner’s quit attempt.160

A person’s working environment can also affect his or her desire to quit or success in quitting. Working long hours can increase the chances that former smokers will relapse, reduce the chances that smokers will quit, and increase cigarette consumption among regular smokers, particularly for people who usually work very long hours (50 or more hours a week).161 Being unemployed, or having an unemployed partner, also predict greater odds of smoking.162 Cue reactivity

A robust body of research shows that smokers experience increases in self-reported craving, and moderate changes in autonomic reactivity (e.g. heart rate, skin conductance, blood pressure) when they are exposed to smoking-related stimuli, which is known as cue reactivity.163 Cues commonly include environmental stimuli such as cigarettes, matches, ashtrays, the smell of smoke, or seeing another person smoking, but can also include feelings such as stress or negative affect.164 One study found that smokers also have an attentional bias for smoking cues in movies, such as seeing actors smoke or showing an ashtray on screen.165 Point-of-purchase cigarette displays act as cues to smoke, even among those not explicitly intending to buy cigarettes and those trying to avoid smoking.166 Smokers can also experience cravings in response to environments where cigarette cues are not present, but normally are (such as in convenience stores, even when no smoking-related stimuli is visible).167 Cue-induced cravings in turn predict smoking behaviours, such as shorter latency to smoke, as well as increased number of puffs and puff volume.168 This reactivity occurs similarly among men and women,169 and among intermittent, daily,170 and nondependent smokers.171

Environmental cues, such as embarrassment, cost of cigarettes, and messages in the media, can prompt quit attempts.172 Former smokers often intentionally avoid smoking cues, which can help them maintain abstinence.173 There are a number of promising cessation interventions that are informed by cue reactivity research, such as training smokers to preferentially attend to non-smoking related cues,174 and using behavioural techniques to extinguish the learned responses between smoking-related stimuli and cravings.175 Tobacco marketing

Exposure to tobacco advertising can reduce current smokers’ motivation to quit and increase former smokers’ likelihood of relapse. (See Chapter 11, Section 11.1.) For example, displays of tobacco products at the point-of-sale (now banned in Australia) can create temptation and lead to impulse purchases, increase a person’s chances of relapse,176-179 and make quitting more difficult.177 (See Chapter 11, Section 9). A recent ITC study shows that implementing POS tobacco display bans does result in lower exposure to tobacco marketing and less frequent impulse purchasing of cigarettes.180

Recent news and research

For recent news items and research on this topic, click here (Last updated March 2018)    


1. Ockene J, Emmons K, Mermelstein R, Perkins K, Bonello D, et al. Relapse and maintenance issues for smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 2000; 19(1 Suppl):17–31. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10709945

2. Abrams D, Niaura R, and Brown R, The tobacco dependence treatment handbook. A guide to best practices. New York: Guilford; 2003. Available from: http://www.books-by-isbn.com/1-57230/1572308494-The-Tobacco-Dependence-Treatment-Handbook-A-Guide-to-Best-Practices-1-57230-849-4.html

3. Royal College of Physicians of London. Nicotine addiction in Britain. A report of the tobacco advisory group of the royal college of physicians. London: Royal College of Physicians of London, 2000. Available from: http://bookshop.rcplondon.ac.uk/details.aspx?e=131

4. Trotter L, Mullins R, Boulter J, and Borland R. Key findings of the 1996 and 1997 household surveys, in Quit evaluation studies 9. The Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria; 1998. p 1–26.

5. Filozof C, Fernandez Pinilla MC, and Fernandez-Cruz A. Smoking cessation and weight gain. Obesity Reviews, 2004; 5(2):95–103. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15086863

6. Hyland A, Borland R, Li Q, Yong HH, McNeill A, et al. Individual-level predictors of cessation behaviours among participants in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tobacco Control, 2006; 15(suppl. 3):iii83–94. Available from: http://tc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/15/suppl_3/iii83

7. Vangeli E, Stapleton J, Smit E, Borland R, and West R. Predictors of attempts to stop smoking and their success in adult general population samples: A systematic review. Addiction, 2011; 106(12):2110–21. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752135

8. Zhou X, Nonnemaker J, Sherrill B, Gilsenan A, Coste F, et al. Attempts to quit smoking and relapse: Factors associated with success or failure from the attempt cohort study. Addictive Behaviors, 2009; 34(4):365–73. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19097706

9. Partos TR, Borland R, Yong H-H, Hyland A, and Cummings KM. The quitting rollercoaster: How recent quitting history affects future cessation outcomes (data from the International Tobacco Control 4-Country cohort study). Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2013; 15(9):1578–87. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23493370

10. McDermott L, Dobson A, and Owen N. Determinants of continuity and change over 10 years in young women's smoking. Addiction, 2009; 104(3):478–87. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121685314/abstract

11. Baldwin A, Rothman A, Hertel A, Keenan N, and Jeffery R. Longitudinal associations between people's cessation-related experiences and their satisfaction with cessation. Psychology & Health, 2009; 24(2):187–201. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20186651

12. Herd N and Borland R. The natural history of quitting smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Addiction, 2009; 104(12):2075–87. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19922573

13. Yong H, Borland R, Cooper J, and Cummings K. Postquitting experiences and expectations of adult smokers and their association with subsequent relapse: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2010; 12 Suppl:S12–S9. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/12/suppl_1/S12.long

14. Herd N, Borland R, and Hyland A. Predictors of smoking relapse by duration of abstinence: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Addiction, 2009; 104(12):2088–99. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19922574

15. Cofta-Woerpel L, McClure J, Li Y, Urbauer D, Cinciripini P, et al. Early cessation success or failure among women attempting to quit smoking: Trajectories and volatility of urge and negative mood during the first postcessation week. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2011; 120(3):596–606. Available from: http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&id=2011-10194-001

16. Franklin T, Ehrman R, Lynch K, Harper D, Sciortino N, et al. Menstrual cycle phase at quit date predicts smoking status in an NRT treatment trial: A retrospective analysis Journal of Women's Health, 2008; 17(2):287–92. Available from: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jwh.2007.0423

17. Franklin TR and Allen SS. Influence of menstrual cycle phase on smoking cessation treatment outcome: A hypothesis regarding the discordant findings in the literature. Addiction, 2009; 104(11):1941–2. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122637810/abstract

18. Hyland A, Li Q, Bauer J, Giovino G, Steger C, et al. Predictors of cessation in a cohort of current and former smokers followed over 13 years. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2004; 6(Suppl 3):S363–9. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/6/Suppl_3/S363.abstract

19. Armstrong B, de Klerk N, Shean R, Dunn D, and Dolin P. Influence of education and advertising on the uptake of smoking by children. The Medical Journal of Australia, 1990; 152(3):117–24. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2405239

20. Hellman R, Cummings K, Haughey B, Zielezny M, and O'Shea R. Predictors of attempting and succeeding at smoking cessation. Health Education Research, 1991; 6(1):77–86. Available from: http://her.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/6/1/77

21. Breslau N and Peterson E. Smoking cessation in young adults: Age at initiation of cigarette smoking and other suspected influences. American Journal of Public Health, 1996; 86(2):214–20. Available from: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/86/2/214

22. Chen J and Millar W. Age of smoking initiation: Implications for quitting. Health Reports, 1998; 9(4):39–46. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9836879

23. Khuder SA, Dayal HH, and Mutgi AB. Age at smoking onset and its effect on smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 1999; 24(5):673–7. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460398001130

24. Walker JF and Loprinzi PD. Longitudinal examination of predictors of smoking cessation in a national sample of u.S. Adolescent and young adult smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014; 16(6):820–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24520129

25. Yong H, Borland R, and Siahpush M. Quitting-related beliefs, intentions and motivations of older smokers in four countries: Findings from the international tobacco control policy evaluation survey. Addictive Behaviors, 2005; 30(4):777–88. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833581

26. Augustson E, Wanke K, Rogers S, Bergen A, Chatterjee N, et al. Predictors of sustained smoking cessation: A prospective analysis of chronic smokers from the alpha-tocopherol beta-carotene cancer prevention study. American Journal of Public Health, 2008; 98(3):549–55. Available from: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/98/3/549

27. Van Zundert R, Nijhof L, and Engels R. Testing social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework to predict smoking relapse among daily smoking adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 2009; 34(3):281–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19059732

28. Cox L, Wick J, Nazir N, Cupertino A, Mussulman L, et al. Predictors of early versus late smoking abstinence within a 24-month disease management program. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2011; 13(3):215–20. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/01/13/ntr.ntq227.full

29. Japuntich S, Leventhal A, Piper M, Bolt D, Roberts L, et al. Smoker characteristics and smoking-cessation milestones. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2011; 40(3):286–94. Available from: http://www.ajpm-online.net/article/S0749-3797(10)00714-2/fulltext

30. Yong HH, Borland R, Balmford J, Hyland A, O'Connor RJ, et al. Heaviness of smoking predicts smoking relapse only in the first weeks of a quit attempt: Findings from the international tobacco control four-country survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014; 16(4):423–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24158228

31. Piasecki T, Jorenby D, Smith S, Fiore M, and Baker T. Smoking withdrawal dynamics: III. Correlates of withdrawal heterogeneity. Experimental Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2003; 11(4):276–85. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14599261

32. Siahpush M, Borland R, and Scollo M. Factors associated with smoking cessation in a national sample of Australians. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2003; 5(4):597–602. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12959798

33. Robinson J, Lam C, Carter B, Minnix J, Cui Y, et al. A multimodal approach to assessing the impact of nicotine dependence, nicotine abstinence, and craving on negative affect in smokers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2011; 19(1):40–52. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21341922

34. Piper M, Schlam T, Cook J, Sheffer M, Smith S, et al. Tobacco withdrawal components and their relations with cessation success. Psychopharmacology, 2011; 216(4):569–78. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21416234

35. Riemerth A, Kunze U, and Groman E. Nocturnal sleep-disturbing nicotine craving and accomplishment with a smoking cessation program. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (1946), 2009; 159(1–2):47–52. Available from: http://www.springerlink.com/content/a7h83qh020783020/

36. Peters E, Fucito L, Novosad C, Toll B, and O'Malley S. Effect of night smoking, sleep disturbance, and their co-occurrence on smoking outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2011; 25(2):312–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21443301

37. Okun ML, Levine MD, Houck P, Perkins KA, and Marcus MD. Subjective sleep disturbance during a smoking cessation program: Associations with relapse. Addictive Behaviors, 2011; 36(8):861–4. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21482029

38. Zhu S-H, Differential cessation rates across populations: What explains it and how to reduce it. Smokefree Oceania. Tobacco control conference. From vision to reality. September, handbook 4-7 Auckland, New Zealand 2007.

39. Hughes J. Effects of abstinence from tobacco: Valid symptoms and time course. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2007; 9(3):315–27. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17365764

40. Perkins K, Briski J, Fonte C, Scott J, and Lerman C. Severity of tobacco abstinence symptoms varies by time of day. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2009; 11(1):84–91. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/11/1/84

41. Piasecki T. Relapse to smoking. Clinical Psychology Review, 2006; 26(2):196–215. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16352382

42. McCarthy D, Piasecki T, Fiore M, and Baker T. Life before and after quitting smoking: An electronic diary study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2006; 115(3):454–66. Available from: http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=main.landing

43. Piasecki T, Jorenby D, Smith S, Fiore M, and Baker T. Smoking withdrawal dynamics: II. Improved tests of withdrawal-relapse relations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2003; 112(1):14–27. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12653410

44. Javitz H, Swan G, and Lerman C. The dynamics of the urge-to-smoke following smoking cessation via pharmacotherapy. Addiction, 2011; 106(10):1835–45. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03495.x/pdf

45. Aguirre CG, Madrid J, and Leventhal AM. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2015; 124:623–34. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25961814

46. Doherty K, Kinnunen T, Militello FS, and Garvey AJ. Urges to smoke during the first month of abstinence: Relationship to relapse and predictors. Psychopharmacology, 1995; 119(2):171–8. Available from: http://www.springerlink.com/content/7pp044750m2k563n/

47. US Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing tobacco use: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2000. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2000/complete_report/index.htm

48. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Reversal of risk after quitting smoking. IARC handbooks of cancer prevention, Tobacco Control, 11 Lyon, France: IARC, 2007. Available from: http://apps.who.int/bookorders/anglais/detart1.jsp?sesslan=1&codlan=1&codcol=76&codcch=22

49. US Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: Nicotine addiction. A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Maryland: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Office on Smoking and Health, 1988. Available from: http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/B/Z/D/_/nnbbzd.pdf

50. Uhl G, Drgon T, Johnson C, Walther D, Aveyard P, et al. Genome-wide association for smoking cessation success: Participants in the patch in practice trial of nicotine replacement. Pharmacogenomics, 2010; 11(3):357–67. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20235792

51. Chen LS and Bierut LJ. Genomics and personalized medicine: Chrna5-chrna3-chrnb4 and smoking cessation treatment. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 2013; 21(4):S87–90. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214750

52. Minica CC, Mbarek H, Pool R, Dolan CV, Boomsma DI, et al. Pathways to smoking behaviours: Biological insights from the tobacco and genetics consortium meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 2016. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27021816

53. Liu JZ, Tozzi F, Waterworth DM, Pillai SG, Muglia P, et al. Meta-analysis and imputation refines the association of 15q25 with smoking quantity. Nature Genetics, 2010; 42(5):436–40. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.572

54. Saccone NL, Culverhouse RC, Schwantes-An T-H, Cannon DS, Chen X, et al. Multiple independent loci at chromosome 15q25. 1 affect smoking quantity: A meta-analysis and comparison with lung cancer and COPD. PLoS Genetics, 2010; 6(8):e1001053. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1001053

55. The Tobacco Genetics Consortium. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior. Nature Genetics, 2010; 42(5):441–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2914600/

56. Thorgeirsson TE, Gudbjartsson DF, Surakka I, Vink JM, Amin N, et al. Sequence variants at chrnb3-chrna6 and cyp2a6 affect smoking behavior. Nature Genetics, 2010; 42(5):448–53. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3080600/

57. No authors listed. The science of tobacco addiction and cessation. Cancer Discovery, 2014; 4(1):12–3. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24402931

58. Xian H, Scherrer JF, Madden PAF, Lyons MJ, Tsuang M, et al. The heritability of failed smoking cessation and nicotine withdrawal in twins who smoked and attempted to quit. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2003; 5(2):245–54. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/2/245.abstract

59. Chen L-S, Baker TB, Piper ME, Breslau N, Cannon DS, et al. Interplay of genetic risk factors (chrna5-chrna3-chrnb4) and cessation treatments in smoking cessation success. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2012; 169(7):735–42. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.11101545

60. Ma Y, Yuan W, Cui W, and Li MD. Meta-analysis reveals significant association of 3'-utr vntr in slc6a3 with smoking cessation in caucasian populations. Pharmacogenomics J, 2015. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26149737

61. David SP and Munafò MR. Genetic variation in the dopamine pathway and smoking cessation. Pharmacogenomics, 2008; 9(9):1307–21. Available from: http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/abs/10.2217/14622416.9.9.1307

62. Chen L-S, Bloom AJ, Baker TB, Smith SS, Piper ME, et al. Pharmacotherapy effects on smoking cessation vary with nicotine metabolism gene (cyp2a6). Addiction, 2014; 109(1):128–37. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12353

63. Wright AJ, Aveyard P, Guo B, Murphy M, and Brown K. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study. Addiction, 2007; 102(10):1657–64. Available from: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01937.x

64. Etter J and Sutton S. Assessing 'stage of change' in current and former smokers. Addiction, 2002; 97(9):1171–82. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118958136/abstract

65. Abrams D, Herzog T, Emmons K, and Linnan L. Stages of change versus addiction: A replication and extension. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2000; 2(3):223–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11082822

66. Farkas AJ, Pierce JP, Zhu SH, Rosbrook R, Gilpin E, et al. Addiction versus stages of change models in predicting smoking cessation. Addiction, 1996; 91(9):1271–80. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119222686/abstract

67. Yong H, Borland R, Hyland A, and Siahpush M. How does a failed quit attempt among regular smokers affect their cigarette consumption? Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four-country survey (ITC-4). Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2008; 10(5):897–905. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4469947/

68. Begh R, Lindson-Hawley N, and Aveyard P. Does reduced smoking if you can't stop make any difference? BMC Medicine, 2015; 13:257. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26456865

69. Walker M, Burnham D, and Borland R, Psychology. Brisbane, QLD: John Wiley & Sons; 1994.

70. Bandura A. Self-efficacy in health functioning, in Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine. 2nd edition. Ayers S, et al., Editors. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press; 2007.

71. Dijkstra A and DeVries H. Self-efficacy expectations with regard to different tasks in smoking cessation. Psychology and Health, 2000; 15(4):501–11. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08870440008402009

72. Borland R and Balmford J. Perspectives on relapse prevention: An exploratory study. Psychology & Health, 2005; 20(5):661–71. Available from: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a723893197~db=all

73. Stuart K, Borland R, and McMurray N. Self-efficacy, health locus of control, and smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 1994; 19(1):1–12. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8197887

74. Gwaltney CJ, Liu KS, Gnys M, Hickcox M, and Paton SM. Dynamic effects of self-efficacy on smoking lapse and relapse. Health Psychology, 2000; 19(4):315–23. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10907649

75. Perkins K, Parzynski C, Mercincavage M, Conklin C, and Fonte C. Is self-efficacy for smoking abstinence a cause of, or a reflection on, smoking behavior change? Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2011; 20(1):56–62. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21910550

76. Kirchner T, Shiffman S, and Wileyto E. Relapse dynamics during smoking cessation: Recurrent abstinence violation effects and lapse-relapse progression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2011; 121(1):187–97. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21787035

77. Siahpush M, McNeill A, Borland R, and Fong GT. Socioeconomic variations in nicotine dependence, self-efficacy, and intention to quit across four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tobacco Control, 2006; 15(Suppl 3):iii71–5. Available from: http://tc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/15/suppl_3/iii71

78. Zale EL, Ditre JW, Dorfman ML, Heckman BW, and Brandon TH. Smokers in pain report lower confidence and greater difficulty quitting. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014; 16(9):1272–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24827790

79. Gwaltney C, Metrik J, Kahler C, and Shiffman S. Self-efficacy and smoking cessation: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2009; 23(1):56–66. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19290690

80. Segan CJ, Borland R, and Greenwood KM. Do transtheoretical model measures predict the transition from preparation to action in smoking cessation? Psychology and Health, 2002; 17(4):417–35. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0887044022000004911

81. Segan CJ, Do transtheoretical model measures predict stage transitions for smoking cessation? Studies of callers to a quitline. PhD thesis. Department of psychological science, la trobe university Melbourne 2003.

82. Segan S and Borland R, 'It’s all in the head': Working with the mind in smoking cessation. Keynote presentation New Zealand Smokefree Conference, 9-10 September. Auckland 2002.

83. Castro Y, Cano MA, Businelle MS, Correa-Fernandez V, Heppner WL, et al. A cross-lagged path analysis of five intrapersonal determinants of smoking cessation. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014; 137:98–105. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24529688

84. Lee HS, Catley D, and Harris KJ. Improving understanding of the quitting process: Psychological predictors of quit attempts versus smoking cessation maintenance among college students. Substance Use and Misuse, 2014; 49(10):1332–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24758706

85. Li S, Fang L, Zhou Y, Pan L, Yang X, et al. Mediation of smoking abstinence self-efficacy on the association of nicotine dependence with smoking cessation. European Journal of Public Health, 2015; 25(2):200–4. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25395394

86. Smit ES, Hoving C, Schelleman-Offermans K, West R, and de Vries H. Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit. Addictive Behaviors, 2014; 39(9):1318–24. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24837754

87. Hall PA, Fong GT, and Meng G. Time perspective as a determinant of smoking cessation in four countries: Direct and mediated effects from the international tobacco control (ITC) 4-country surveys. Addictive Behaviors, 2014; 39(7):1183–90. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24747807

88. VandenBos GR, APA dictionary of psychology. American Psychological Association; 2007.

89. Kahler C, Spillane N, Metrik J, Leventhal A, and Monti P. Sensation seeking as a predictor of treatment compliance and smoking cessation treatment outcomes in heavy social drinkers. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 2009; 93(3):285–90. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19593843

90. Brook JS, Zhang C, Balka EB, Seltzer N, and Brook DW. Personality characteristics in the mid-forties predict women's smoking cessation in their mid-sixties. Psychological Reports, 2013; 113(3):921–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24693821

91. Lopez-Torrecillas F, Perales JC, Nieto-Ruiz A, and Verdejo-Garcia A. Temperament and impulsivity predictors of smoking cessation outcomes. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9(12):e112440. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25474540

92. Lipkus IM, Barefoot JC, Williams RB, and Siegler IC. Personality measures as predictors of smoking initiation and cessation in the unc alumni heart study. Health Psychology, 1994; 13(2):149. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8020458

93. Hall PA, Fong GT, Yong HH, Sansone G, Borland R, et al. Do time perspective and sensation-seeking predict quitting activity among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Addictive Behaviors, 2012; 37(12):1307–13. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22958863

94. Pomerleau CS and Saules K. Body image, body satisfaction, and eating patterns in normal-weight and overweight/obese women current smokers and never-smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 2007; 32(10):2329–34. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17320305

95. Pomerleau CS, Zucker AN, and Stewart AJ. Characterizing concerns about post-cessation weight gain: Results from a national survey of women smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2001; 3(1):51–60. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11260811

96. Brouwer RJ and Pomerleau CS. "Prequit attrition" among weight-concerned women smokers. Eating Behaviors, 2000; 1(2):145–51. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15001057

97. Copeland AL, Martin PD, Geiselman PJ, Rash CJ, and Kendzor DE. Predictors of pretreatment attrition from smoking cessation among pre- and postmenopausal, weight-concerned women. Eating Behaviors, 2006; 7(3):243–51. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16843227

98. Alberg AJ, Carter CL, and Carpenter MJ. Weight gain as an impediment to cigarette smoking cessation: A lingering problem in need of solutions. Preventive Medicine, 2007; 44(4):296–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17316778

99. White MA, McKee SA, and O'Malley S S. Smoke and mirrors: Magnified beliefs that cigarette smoking suppresses weight. Addictive Behaviours, 2007; 32(10):2200–10. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17428615

100. Fiore M, Bailey W, Cohen S, and Dorfman S. Smoking cessation clinical practice guideline no. 18. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1996.

101. Fiore M, Bailey W, and Cohen S, et al. Treating tobacco use and dependence. Clinical practice guideline. Rockville MD: US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service., 2000. Available from: http://www.treatobacco.net/fr/uploads/documents/Treatment%20Guidelines/USA%20treatment%20guidelines%20in%20English%202000.pdf

102. Farley AC, Hajek P, Lycett D, and Aveyard P. Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006219.pub3/abstract

103. Adams C, Baillie L, and Copeland A. The smoking-related weight and eating episodes test (sweet): Development and preliminary validation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2011; 13(11):1123–31. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21849410

104. Grogan S, Fry G, Gough B, and Conner M. Smoking to stay thin or giving up to save face? Young men and women talk about appearance concerns and smoking. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2008; 14(1):175–86. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1348/135910708X327617/abstract

105. Collins B, Nair U, Hovell M, and Audrain-McGovern J. Smoking-related weight concerns among underserved, black maternal smokers. American Journal of Health Behavior, 2009; 33(6):699–709. Available from: http://www.ajhb.org/ISSUES/2009/6/06NovDec0709Collins.pdf

106. Shang C, Chaloupka F, Fong G, Thompson M, Siahpush M, et al. Weight control belief and its impact on the effectiveness of tobacco control policies on quit attempts: Findings from the ITC 4 country survey. Tobacco Control, 2015; 24 Suppl 3:iii41–iii7. Available from: http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/24/Suppl_3/iii41.full

107. Vinci C, Copeland A, and Carrigan M. Exposure to negative affect cues and urge to smoke. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2011; 20(1):47–55. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21875222

108. Lopez Khoury E, Litvin E, and Brandon T. The effect of body image threat on smoking motivation among college women: Mediation by negative affect. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2009; 23(2):279–86. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19586144

109. Leventhal A. Do individual differences in reinforcement smoking moderate the relationship between affect and urge to smoke? Behavioral Medicine, 2010; 36(1):1–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20185395

110. Shahab L and West R. Differences in happiness between smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers: Cross-sectional findings from a national household survey. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2011; 121(1–2):38–44. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21906891

111. Leventhal A, Waters A, Kahler C, Ray L, and Sussman S. Relations between anhedonia and smoking motivation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2009; 11(9):1047–54. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19571250

112. Carter S, Borland R, and Chapman C. Finding the strength to kill your best friend–smokers talk about smoking and quitting. Sydney: Australian Smoking Cessation Consortium and GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare, 2001. Available from: http://tobacco.health.usyd.edu.au/site/supersite/resources/pdfs/killbestfriend.pdf

113. Kassel JD, Stroud L, and Paronis C. Smoking, stress and negative affect: Correlation, causation and context across stages of smoking. Psychological Bulletin, 2003; 192(2):270–304. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12696841

114. Kalman D. The subjective effects of nicotine: Methodological issues, a review of experimental studies, and recommendations for further research. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2002; 4(1):25–70. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11906682

115. Kassel J and Unrod M. Smoking, anxiety, and attention: Support for the role of nicotine in attentionally mediated anxiolysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2000; 109(1):161–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10740949

116. van der Deen F, Carter K, Wilson N, and Collings S. The association between failed quit attempts and increased levels of psychological distress in smokers in a large New Zealand cohort. BMC Public Health, 2011; 11(1):598. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2458-11-598.pdf

117. Grassi MC, Alessandri G, Pasquariello S, Milioni M, Enea D, et al. Association between positivity and smoking cessation. Biomed Res Int, 2014; 2014:780146. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24967403

118. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. National Drug Strategy Household Survey detailed report: 2013. Cat. no. PHE 183 Canberra: AIHW, 2014. Available from: http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129549469&tab=3

119. Parrott A. Stress modulation over the day in cigarette smokers. Addiction, 1995; 90:233–44. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7703817

120. Patterson F, Kerrin K, Wileyto E, and Lerman C. Increase in anger symptoms after smoking cessation predicts relapse. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2008; 95(1-2):173–6. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03768716

121. US Department of Health and Human Services. The health benefits of smoking cessation. A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 1990. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/pre_1994/index.htm

122. Hendricks PS, Delucchi KL, Benowitz NL, and Hall SM. Clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects and their relationships with nicotine metabolism: Preliminary results from a pilot study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014; 16(5):615–20. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24353342

123. Nakajima M and al'Absi M. Patterns of change in affect and adrenocortical activity over an extended period of smoking abstinence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2013; 27(4):1189–95. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24128290

124. Reitzel LR, Langdon KJ, Nguyen NT, and Zvolensky MJ. Financial strain and smoking cessation among men and women within a self-guided quit attempt. Addictive Behaviors, 2015; 47:66–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25879712

125. Siahpush M and Carlin JB. Financial stress, smoking cessation and relapse: Results from a prospective study of an Australian national sample. Addiction, 2006; 101(1):121–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16393198

126. Siahpush M, Yong H, Borland R, Reid J, and Hammond D. Smokers with financial stress are more likely to want to quit but less likely to try or succeed: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Addiction, 2009; 104(8):1382–90. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02599.x/full

127. Quinn A, Sekimura S, Pang R, Trujillo M, Kahler CW, et al. Hostility as a predictor of affective changes during acute tobacco withdrawal. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014; 16(3):335–42. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24113928

128. Cougle JR, Hawkins KA, Macatee RJ, Zvolensky MJ, and Sarawgi S. Multiple facets of problematic anger among regular smokers: Exploring associations with smoking motives and cessation difficulties. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014; 16(6):881–5. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24692669

129. Cougle JR, Hawkins KA, Macatee RJ, Zvolensky MJ, and Sarawgi S. Trait hostility and hostile interpretation biases in daily smokers: Associations with reasons for smoking, motivation to quit, and early smoking lapse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2014; 28(3):907–11. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25222177

130. Piper ME, Kenford S, Fiore MC, and Baker TB. Smoking cessation and quality of life: Changes in life satisfaction over 3 years following a quit attempt. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2011. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22160762

131. Wilhelm K, Wedgwood L, Niven H, and Kay-Lambkin F. Smoking cessation and depression: Current knowledge and future directions. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2006; 25(1):97–107. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16492582

132. Hughes J. Depression during tobacco abstinence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2007; 9(4):443–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17454698

133. Hitsman B, Borrelli B, McChargue DE, Spring B, and Niaura R. History of depression and smoking cessation outcome: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2003; 71(4):657–63. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12924670

134. Hitsman B, Spring B, Borelli B, McChargue D, and Niaura R. Response to Covey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2004; 6(4):747–9. Available from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1288&context=psychfacpub

135. Burgess ES, Brown RA, Kahler CW, Niaura R, Abrams DB, et al. Patterns of change in depressive symptoms during smoking cessation: Who's at risk for relapse? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2002; 70(2):356–61. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11952193

136. Cooper J, Borland R, Yong HH, and Fotuhi O. The impact of quitting smoking on depressive symptoms: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four-country survey. Addiction, 2016. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26918680

137. Johnson KA, Farris SG, Schmidt NB, Smits JAJ, and Zvolensky MJ. Panic attack history and anxiety sensitivity in relation to cognitive-based smoking processes among treatment-seeking daily smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2013; 15(1):1–10. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3524054/

138. Wong M, Krajisnik A, Truong L, Lisha NE, Trujillo M, et al. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of acute subjective effects of smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2013; 15(6):1084–90. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/6/1084.abstract

139. Evatt DP and Kassel JD. Smoking, arousal, and affect: The role of anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2010; 24(1):114–23. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887618509001881

140. Zvolensky MJ, Vujanovic AA, Miller MOB, Bernstein A, Yartz AR, et al. Incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity in terms of motivation to quit, reasons for quitting, and barriers to quitting among community-recruited daily smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2007; 9(9):965–75. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/9/965.abstract

141. Johnson KA, Stewart S, Rosenfield D, Steeves D, and Zvolensky MJ. Prospective evaluation of the effects of anxiety sensitivity and state anxiety in predicting acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2012; 26(2):289–97. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3457797/

142. Brown RA, Kahler CW, Zvolensky MJ, Lejuez CW, and Ramsey SE. Anxiety sensitivity: Relationship to negative affect smoking and smoking cessation in smokers with past major depressive disorder. Addictive Behaviors, 2001; 26(6):887–99. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460301002416

143. Assayag Y, Bernstein A, Zvolensky MJ, Steeves D, and Stewart SS. Nature and role of change in anxiety sensitivity during NRT-aided cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation treatment. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 2012; 41(1):51–62. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2011.632437

144. Zvolensky MJ, Farris SG, Guillot CR, and Leventhal AM. Anxiety sensitivity as an amplifier of subjective and behavioral tobacco abstinence effects. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014; 142:224–30. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25015688

145. Bonitz V and Gordon R. Attention to smoking-related and incongruous objects during scene viewing. Acta Psychologica, 2008; 129(2):255–63. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804752

146. Ferrer-Garcia M, Garcia-Rodriguez O, Gutierrez-Maldonado J, Pericot-Valverde I, and Secades-Villa R. Efficacy of virtual reality in triggering the craving to smoke: Its relation to level of presence and nicotine dependence. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 2010; 154:123–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20543283

147. Heishman S, Lee D, Taylor R, and Singleton E. Prolonged duration of craving, mood, and autonomic responses elicited by cues and imagery in smokers: Effects of tobacco deprivation and sex. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2010; 18(3):245–56. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545389

148. Wray J, Godleski S, and Tiffany S. Cue-reactivity in the natural environment of cigarette smokers: The impact of photographic and in vivo smoking stimuli. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2011; 25(4):733–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21553947

149. Litvin E and Brandon T. Testing the influence of external and internal cues on smoking motivation using a community sample. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2010; 18(1):61–70. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20158295

150. Macy J, Seo D, Chassin L, Presson C, and Sherman S. Prospective predictors of long-term abstinence versus relapse among smokers who quit as young adults. American Journal of Public Health, 2007; 97(8):1470–5. Available from: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/97/8/1470

151. Hitchman SC, Fong GT, Zanna MP, Thrasher JF, and Laux FL. The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2014; 28(4):1144–52. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24841185

152. McRobbie H, Hajek P, and Locker J. Does the reaction of abstaining smokers to the smell of other people's cigarettes predict relapse? Addiction, 2008; 103(11):1883–7. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19032537

153. Bray BC, Smith RA, Piper ME, Roberts LJ, and Baker TB. Transitions in smokers’ social networks after quit attempts: A latent transition analysis. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2016. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/07/29/ntr.ntw173.abstract

154. Andersen JS and Owen DC. Helping relationships for smoking cessation: Grounded theory development of the process of finding help to quit. Nursing Research, 2014; 63(4):252–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24977722

155. Creswell KG, Cheng Y, and Levine MD. A test of the stress-buffering model of social support in smoking cessation: Is the relationship between social support and time to relapse mediated by reduced withdrawal symptoms? Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014; 17(5):566–71. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25257978

156. Falba T and Sindelar J. Spousal concordance in health behavior change. Health Services Research, 2008; 43(1):96–116. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18211520

157. Rohrbaugh M, Shoham V, Butler E, Hasler B, and Berman J. Affective synchrony in dual- and single-smoker couples: Further evidence of "symptom-system fit"? Family Process, 2009; 48(1):55–67. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122221810/abstract

158. Cobb LK, McAdams-DeMarco MA, Huxley RR, Woodward M, Koton S, et al. The association of spousal smoking status with the ability to quit smoking: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2014; 179(10):1182–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24699782

159. Margolis R and Wright L. Better off alone than with a smoker: The influence of partner's smoking behavior in later life. Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 2015. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25693998

160. vanDellen MR, Boyd SM, Ranby KW, MacKillop J, and Lipkus IM. Willingness to provide support for a quit attempt: A study of partners of smokers. Journal of Health Psychology, 2015. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25603929

161. Angrave D, Charlwood A, and Wooden M. Working time and cigarette smoking: Evidence from Australia and the United Kingdom. Social Science & Medicine, 2014; 112:72–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24814228

162. Arcaya M, Glymour MM, Christakis NA, Kawachi I, and Subramanian SV. Individual and spousal unemployment as predictors of smoking and drinking behavior. Social Science & Medicine, 2014; 110:89–95. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727666

163. Carter BL and Tiffany ST. Meta-analysis of cue-reactivity in addiction research. Addiction, 1999; 94(3):327–40. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1999.9433273.x

164. Payne TJ, Schare ML, Levis DJ, and Colletti G. Exposure to smoking-relevant cues: Effects on desire to smoke and topographical components of smoking behavior. Addictive Behaviors, 1991; 16(6):467–79. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/030646039190054L

165. Lochbuehler K, Voogd H, Scholte RH, and Engels RC. Attentional bias in smokers: Exposure to dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2011; 25(4):514–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21098549

166. Wakefield M, Durkin S, Spittal M, Siahpush M, Scollo M, et al. Impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on monthly adult smoking prevalence: Time series analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 2008; 98:1443–50,. Available from: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/8/1443

167. Paris M, Carter B, Traylor A, Bordnick P, Day S, et al. Cue reactivity in virtual reality: The role of context. Addictive Behaviors, 2011; 36(7):696–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21349649

168. Conklin CA, Vella EJ, Joyce CJ, Salkeld RP, Perkins KA, et al. Examining the relationship between cue-induced craving and actual smoking. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2015; 23(2):90–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25730416

169. Wray JM, Gray KM, McClure EA, Carpenter MJ, Tiffany ST, et al. Gender differences in responses to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2015; 17(4):438–42. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25762753

170. Shiffman S, Dunbar MS, Kirchner TR, Li X, Tindle HA, et al. Cue reactivity in converted and native intermittent smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014; 17(1):119–23. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25168030

171. Wray JM, Gass JC, and Tiffany ST. The magnitude and reliability of cue-specific craving in nondependent smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014; 134:304–8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309295

172. Hughes JR, Naud S, Fingar JR, Callas PW, and Solomon LJ. Do environmental cues prompt attempts to stop smoking? A prospective natural history study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2015; 154:146–51. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26190558

173. Peuker AC and Bizarro L. Attentional avoidance of smoking cues in former smokers. Journal of Substance Abuse & Treatment, 2014; 46(2):183–8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24074848

174. Lopes FM, Pires AV, and Bizarro L. Attentional bias modification in smokers trying to quit: A longitudinal study about the effects of number of sessions. Journal of Substance Abuse and Treatment, 2014; 47(1):50–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24666812

175. Unrod M, Drobes DJ, Stasiewicz PR, Ditre JW, Heckman B, et al. Decline in cue-provoked craving during cue exposure therapy for smoking cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014; 16(3):306–15. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24078760

176. Carter O, Mills B, and Donovan R. The effect of retail cigarette pack displays on unplanned purchases: Results from immediate post-purchase interviews. Tobacco Control, 2009; 18(3):218–21. Available from: http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/18/3/218.full

177. Germain D, McCarthy M, and Wakefield M. Smoker sensitivity to retail tobacco displays and quitting: A cohort study. Addiction, 2010; 105(1):159–63. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19804457

178. Hoek J, Gifford H, Pirikahu G, Thomson G, and Edwards R. How do tobacco retail displays affect cessation attempts? Findings from a qualitative study. Tobacco Control, 2010; 19:(4):334–7. Available from: http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/19/4/334.abstract

179. Clattenburg E, Elf J, and Apelberg B. Unplanned cigarette purchases and tobacco point-of-sale advertising: A potential barrier to smoking cessation. Tobacco Control, 2012; 22(6):376–81. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138525

180. Li L, Borland R, Fong GT, Thrasher JF, Hammond D, et al. Impact of point-of-sale tobacco display bans: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four country survey. Health Education Research, 2013; 28(5):898–910. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3772332/

      Previous Chapter Next Chapter